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1 
Question 1 of 37
The number of minutes spent to answer all the questions in one paragraph should be the result of multiplying 1.30 minutes per the number of questions in that paragraph.
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
   It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
 
 
 
The word “wrapped” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
Opción múltiple
A) Included;#
B) Separated;#
C) Encapsulated;#
D) Isolated;#
E) Surrounded

E
A) The text indicates that there is no way to understand Old European script, so everything related to it is “surrounded” by mystery, and the word “included” means “contained” or “added”, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The text indicates that there is no way to understand Old European script, so everything related to it is “surrounded” by mystery, and the word “separated” implies a separation, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The text indicates that there is no way to understand Old European script, so everything related to it is “surrounded” by mystery, and the word “encapsulated” means “put inside a capsule” or “summarized”, so this answer is not the best.;#
D) The text indicates that there is no way to understand Old European script, so everything related to it is “surrounded” by mystery, and the word “isolated” implies a separation, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) This is the best answer! The text indicates that there is no way to understand Old European script, so everything related to it is “surrounded” by mystery.

;#

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2 
Question 2 of 37
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
 
The word “them” in paragraph 2 refers to
Opción múltiple
A) inscriptions;#
B) cuneiform tablets;#
C) Old Persian and Elamite;#
D) languages;#
E) scholars

C
A) The text reads: “…Old Persian and Elamite, languages that had already been deciphered, and cuneiform above them.” It is clear that the author makes reference to “Old Persian and Elamite”, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The text reads: “…Old Persian and Elamite, languages that had already been deciphered, and cuneiform above them.” It is clear that the author makes reference to “Old Persian and Elamite”, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! The text reads: “…Old Persian and Elamite, languages that had already been deciphered, and cuneiform above them.” It is clear that the author makes reference to “Old Persian and Elamite”.;#
D) The text reads: “…Old Persian and Elamite, languages that had already been deciphered, and cuneiform above them.” It is clear that the author makes reference only to “Old Persian and Elamite”, excluding any other languages, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The text reads: “…Old Persian and Elamite, languages that had already been deciphered, and cuneiform above them.” It is clear that the author makes reference to “Old Persian and Elamite”, so this answer is wrong.

;#
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.
3 
Question 3 of 37
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
 
 
According to the passage, Elamite is
Opción múltiple
A) a language that was written in the cuneiform script ;#
B) a modem language that came from Old Persian ;#
C) one of the languages spoken by the Old Europeans ;#
D) a language decoded by the late eighteenth century ;#
E) a language spoken by Darius I

D
A) According to the text, Elamite was used to understand cuneiform which was a different language, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The relationship between Old Persian and Elamite is never explained in the text; in addition, the context indicates Elamite was an ancient language, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) A connection between Old Europe and Elamite is never mentioned. This language is only referred to as one of the examples of bilingual writing that helped understand ancient languages, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) This is the best answer! The text indicates that The Behistun Inscription was discovered at the end of the eighteenth century, and points out Elamite was a language that had already been deciphered by that time.;#
E) The text indicates that the Behistun Inscription contained a statement by Darius I written in three different languages, but it never indicates whether he spoke the three of them, so this answer is not the best.

;#
.
.
4 
Question 4 of 37
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
 
 
The word “Pockets” in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to
Opción múltiple
A) group;#
B) receptacle;#
C) cavity;#
D) small bag;#
E) language

A
A) This is the best answer! The text mentions that “Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days…” This makes it clear that the author is referring to small groups or tribes.;#
B) The text mentions that “Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days…” This makes it clear that the author is referring to small groups or tribes, and the word “receptacle” is close in meaning to “container”, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The text mentions that “Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days…” This makes it clear that the author is referring to small groups or tribes, and the word “cavity” is close in meaning to “hole”, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The text mentions that “Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days…” This makes it clear that the author is referring to small groups or tribes, but not to “bags”, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) The text mentions that “Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days…” This makes it clear that the author is referring to small groups or tribes and their whole culture, rather than just their languages, so this answer is wrong.;#
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.
5 
Question 5 of 37
  
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
Look at the five squares [ A ] that indicate where the following sentence could be added in paragraph 1.
As a result, we have not been able to find a way to translate the Old European script yet.
Where would the sentence best fit?
Opción múltiple
A) A ;#
B) B ;#
C) C ;#
D) D ;#
E) E

B
A) The sentence to be added indicates a result rather than a consequence of the lack of a linguistic continuity between Old European script and modern European languages, which is the information mentioned in A, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) This is the best answer! The sentence preceding B mentions that there is no “linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe… and the languages of the modern world”. This is what makes it impossible to translate forms of Old European script.;#
C) The sentence to be added refers to the translation of Old European script, not to the understanding of “other ancient languages” as it is mentioned after C, so this answer is not the best.;#
D) The sentence to be added does not have a clear relationship to the information in the sentences after and before D, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) The sentence to be added refers to the lack of a way to translate Old European script, but does not make reference to “those specialized in the study of Old European culture” that are mentioned in the last sentence of the paragraph, so this answer is not the best.

;#
.
.
6 
Question 6 of 37
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
Which of the following sentences best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 2?
Opción múltiple
A) The contents of cuneiform tablets were first deciphered when scholars discovered them in the eighteenth century.;#
B) In the eighteenth century, cuneiform tablets were found, but their texts were not understood.;#
C) After they found cuneiform texts in the eighteenth century, scholars decoded them using contents.;#
D) Scholars could not use the content of cuneiform tablets when they found them in the eighteenth century.;#
E) In the eighteenth century scholars used cuneiform tablets to decode their contents.

B
A) The highlighted sentence indicates that the decoding of cuneiform tablets was not done when they were discovered, but some time after, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) This is the best answer! The highlighted sentence indicates that scholars could not read the cuneiform tablets found in the eighteenth century.;#
C) The highlighted sentence does not mention the use of “contents” to decipher cuneiform texts, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The highlighted sentence indicates that scholars could not read the cuneiform tablets found in the eighteenth century, but no reference is made to making use of their contents, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The highlighted sentence does not mention that cuneiform tablets were used to decipher their own contents so this answer is wrong.

;#
.
.
7 
Question 7 of 37
  
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
Which of the sentences below best expresses the meaning of the highlighted sentence in paragraph 5?
Opción múltiple
A) The advance of the Indo-Europeans brought violence into Europe.;#
B) When the Indo-Europeans arrived in the continent they went under upheavals.;#
C) The Indo-Europeans reached Old Europe after they went ups and downs.;#
D) The Indo-Europeans found upheavals when they reached Europe.;#
E) Under the existing reach in Europe, the Indo-Europeans went to the East continent.

A
A) This is the best answer! The highlighted sentence indicates that the Indo-Europeans advanced inside the Europe from the East, causing turmoil with their arrival.;#
B) The highlighted sentence indicates that the Indo-European incursions caused upheavals, but not that those existed in the continent before their arrival, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The highlighted sentence does not mention any “ups and downs” experienced by the Indo-Europeans on their way to Europe, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The highlighted sentence indicates that the Indo-Europeans, who had advanced inside the continent from the East, caused rather than found turmoil as a result of their arrival, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The highlighted sentence does not mention any incursion of the Indo-Europeans into an “East continent”, so this answer is wrong.;#
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8 
Question 8 of 37
 
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
When does the passage imply that Egyptian hieroglyphic was finally decoded?
Opción múltiple
A) Near the end of the 1800’s ;#
B) A few decades after the hieratic script was decoded ;#
C) As soon as additional French incursions caused bilingual inscriptions to become available to scholars ;#
D) Shortly after the Rosetta stone was unearthed;#
E) At around the same time as cuneiform script was decoded

E
A) The author explains that both cuneiform script and Egyptian hieroglyphic were decoded at the beginnings of the eighteenth century (1900’s), so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The author does not detail a relationship between the decoding of hieratic and hieroglyphic script, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) No additional findings of inscriptions by French troops are mentioned in relation to the decoding of Egyptian hieroglyphic, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The author explains that the Rosetta stone challenged scholars for many years before they could translate Egyptian hieroglyphic, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) This is the best answer! The author explains that both, cuneiform script and Egyptian hieroglyphic were decoded at the beginnings of the eighteenth century.

;#

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9 
Question 9 of 37
 
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
According to the passage which of the following is not true about The Behistun Inscription?
Opción múltiple
A) It was found by scholars.;#
B) It contains two versions of the same text.;#
C) It was written in three languages.;#
D) It contains a declaration by a king.;#
E) It contributed to the decoding of cuneiform script.

B
A) The text does not state whether The Behistun Inscription was found by scholars or not, so this answer is not the best.;#
B) This is the best answer! The text indicates that The Behistun Inscription contains the same text written three times in three different languages.;#
C) The Behistun Inscription is written in three languages according to the text (Old Persian, Elamite and cuneiform), so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The text mentions that The Behistun Inscription contains a statement by “Darius I of Persia”, a name most probably taken by a king, so this is not the best answer.;#
E) The text mentions that the discovery of The Behistun Inscription made the decoding of cuneiform script possible, so this answer is wrong.

;#
.
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10 
Question 10 of 37
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
 
According to the passage what is true about the Rosetta stone?
Opción múltiple
A) It carried a message from a king.;#
B) It served as a reference to understand the Old European stone.;#
C) It thwarted the knowledge of scholars.;#
D) It was written in two languages.;#
E) It was discovered by Napoleon.

C
A) The text does not detail what kind of message the stone carried, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The text indicates that an Old European Rosetta stone does not exist, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! The text indicates that the Rosetta stone “graveled scholars” efforts”.;#
D) The text indicates that the Rosetta stone was written in three languages: “ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic, a simplified form of hieroglyphic”, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The text mentions that the Rosetta stone was found by French troops, but no specific names are given, so this answer is wrong.

;#
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11 
Question 11 of 37
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
 
Why does the author mention the Rosetta stone and The Behistun Inscription?
Opción múltiple
A) They are examples of the Indo-European cross reference heritage.;#
B) They were crucial in understanding the history of old script forms.;#
C) They are examples of evidence that has made the translation of old languages possible.;#
D) They are examples of scholars’ hard work.;#
E) They are examples of complex writings.
C
A) The writer does not mention the existence of something that can be considered “cross reference heritage”, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The text mentions the Behistun Inscription and the Rosetta stone were crucial for scholars to decipher old script forms, but not to study their history, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! The author mentions that “taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages”. After this, the text describes how the Behistun Inscription and the Rosetta stone enabled scholars to decipher two forms of ancient script.;#
D) The author indicates that scholars worked hard to decode the texts in both the Behistun Inscription and the Rosetta stone, but that does not mean that such inscriptions were the product of hard work.;#
E) The author indicates that both the Behistun Inscription and the Rosetta stone are complex trilingual writings that enabled scholars to decode ancient script forms, but the simple expression “complex writings” is too general as to be considered the main reason why the author mentions them, so this is not the best answer.;#
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12 
Question 12 of 37
 
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
What is stated in the passage about the Balkans?
Opción múltiple
A) It was a famous farming area.;#
B) It was the first part of Europe affected by the Indo-European incursions.;#
C) They fought the Indo-Europeans and suffered several losses.;#
D) Written language was not used in that area.;#
E) Script forms were plentifully used there.

E
A) The text mentions a “sedentary farming style” was characteristic of all Old Europe not just of particular regions, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The text mentions that the Indo-European invasions came from the East, but does not state which was the first region affected by them, so this answer is not the best.;#
C) The Balkans is referred to as a region, not a group of people who could have fought against the Indo-Europeans, so this answer is not the best.;#
D) The text emphasizes that script language was extensively used in the Balkans, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) This is the best answer! The text emphasizes that script language was extensively used in the Balkans.

;#

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.
13 
Question 13 of 37
 
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
What would most likely have happened if the Indo-Europeans had not entered Old Europe?
Opción múltiple
A) Basque would be spoken by more people in our days.;#
B) They would have invaded Egypt.;#
C) They would have become farmers.;#
D) Old European script forms could have been found and eventually deciphered.;#
E) Old European script samples would have been found in the Middle East.

D
A) Although the Basque language was one of the few languages that survived from those with an Old European origin, no reference is made to whether it could have become a widespread one, so this answer is not the best.;#
B) The text mentions that where the Indo-Europeans came from, but no reference is made to whether they had plans on entering regions other than Old Europe, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The text emphasizes that the old “sedentary farming style” of Old Europe was disrupted by the Indo-European incursions in the continent, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) This is the best answer! The writer mentions that the Indo-European incursions “caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly”. The result of this was the disappearance of most of its cultural heritage, of which script forms would have made examples similar to those mentioned of ancient languages from the Middle East.;#
E) The text never makes reference to whether the “sedentary” farmers of Old Europe would have moved to other areas if they had not been affected by the incursions of other groups in their continent, so this answer is wrong.

;#
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14 
Question 14 of 37
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
 
What does the author mention about the Estonian language?
Opción múltiple
A) It is an example of a language with Pre-Indo-European origin.;#
B) It evolved from Basque.;#
C) It is spoken near Finland.;#
D) It is an example of a pocket language.;#
E) It has no written evidence.

A
A) This is the best answer! The author mentions only three examples of languages with a pre-Indo-European origin: Basque, Finn and Estonian.;#
B) No relationship other than having a Pre-Indo -European origin is mentioned about the two languages, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The area where Estonian is and was spoken is never mentioned in the text, so this answer is not the best. Remember, you are expected to show your ability to understand an academic text, not your general knowledge.;#
D) The concept “pocket language” is not mentioned in the text, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) Although the text indicates no script evidence of Estonian has been found, the answer is written in present; if this answer were correct, it would mean the Estonian language does not have a written form and this is not indicated by the author, so this answer is not the best.;#
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15 
Question 15 of 37
 
 
Read the following passage.
The languages spoken by early Europeans are still wrapped in mystery. A
There is no linguistic continuity between the languages of Old Europe (a term
used for Europe between 7000 and 3000 B.C.) and the languages of the modern world. B The effect of a lack of written understandable references is usually a crucial fact in our understanding of ancient cultures, so this absence of written sources from the groups that inhabited Europe more than 5000 years ago has limited our knowledge concerning their culture. C On the contrary, and taking advantage of bilingual and even trilingual inscriptions, scholars have deciphered other ancient languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and even Egyptian hieroglyphs. D However, and unfortunately for most of those specialized in the study of Old European culture, no such cross-references related to the ancient European languages have been found yet. E
 
In the study of some of the regions of what today we call the Middle East, the situation has been different. The discovery of examples of complex ancient writing has made the translation of such sources possible. When cuneiform tablets were first discovered in the eighteenth century, scholars could not decode their contents. Then inscriptions found in The Behistun Inscription at the end of the eighteenth century provided a link: the text in these inscriptions is a statement by Darius I of Persia, and it was written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite (languages that had already been deciphered) and cuneiform above them. It took many years, but at the beginnings of the nineteenth century, scholars eventually translated the ancient cuneiform script via the more familiar Old Persian language.
 
Similarly, the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians remained a mystery, and most aspects of their culture would have equally remained a closed book to our days had it not been for the discovery made by French troops that unearthed the famous Rosetta stone in the late eighteenth century. The stone carried the same message written in ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphic, and Egyptian hieratic (a simplified form of hieroglyphic). The Rosetta stone graveled scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were deciphered using the Greek inscriptions. Unfortunately, there is no Old European Rosetta stone to chart correspondences between Old European script and the languages that replaced it.
 
It is essential to point out that one of the reasons why no major evidences of Old European script have been found is due to the gradual fading away of the peoples that inhabited Europe before the incursions of Indo-European tribes from the late fifth to the early third millennia B.C. This arrival accelerated the disappearance of the tribes that spoke Old European languages causing a linguistic and cultural discontinuity. One of the main consequences of this process is the fact that the modern languages of what we now call Europe come not from a branch that started in the center of the continent, but near the Black Sea, close to the regions where Europe and Asia meet.
 
The aforementioned incursions disrupted the Old European sedentary farming lifestyle that had existed for 3,000 years. As the Indo-Europeans encroached on Old Europe from the east, the continent underwent upheavals. These severely affected the Balkans, where, contrary to what occurred in other areas at that time, the Old European cultures abundantly employed script; the existing turmoil caused the Old European way of life to deteriorate rapidly, and this included their production of written language. The new peoples who spread over the whole continent spoke completely different languages belonging to the Indo-European linguistic family. The Old European language or languages, and the script used to write them, declined and eventually almost vanished.
 
Pockets of Old European culture remained for several millennia and their cultural heritage remains to our days; for example, the Basque language, together with the Finn and Estonian, has a Pre-Indo European origin. However, no scripts of the old forms of such languages have been found, and the connection between their present and old forms has been lost. In addition, Basque has never extended farther from a rather limited area of use as it is even today; as for the latter two, they spread into an also limited area of the continent at about the same time that the Indo-European languages did; this made them share more characteristics with these ones than with the Sami languages from which they evolved.
Which of the following lists best summarizes, in chronological order, the events described in paragraphs 4, 5 and 6?
Opción múltiple
A) . Modern European languages came from the Black Sea.
. The Indo-Europeans entered Europe.
. Instability aroused in the European continent.
. Old European cultures resisted the invasion for centuries.
. Some languages with Pre-Indo-European origin survived.;#
B) . Old Europe had the same lifestyle for over 3,000 years.
. The Indo-Europeans came from the Black Sea and entered Europe.
. Instability aroused in the European continent.
. Old European cultures gradually disappeared.
. Few languages with Pre-Indo-European origin remained in restricted
areas.;#
C) . Indo-Europeans came from the Black Sea bringing disruption into Europe.
. The Old Europeans defended their farming life.
. The Old Europeans started speaking Indo-European  Languages.
. The Sami languages evolved.;#
D) . The peoples that inhabited Old Europe faded away.
. The Indo-Europeans invaded Europe.
. The Indo-Europeans changed the farming style of Old Europeans.
. The Balkans suffered upheavals.
. The Basque language was the only one that survived.;#
E) . The Indo-Europeans met in the Black Sea.
. The Indo-Europeans fought the Old Europeans.
. Turmoil was under ways in the continent.
. Pockets kept the cultural heritage.
. The Sami languages evolved from Basque.
B
A) The “branch” from which modern European languages evolved started in the Black Sea, but they did not come from there; additionally, the author never indicates resistance to the Indo-European incursions from the Old Europeans, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) This is the best answer!;#
C) Neither resistance from the Old Europeans to the Indo-European incursions, nor their adopting Indo-European languages are mentioned by the author, so this answer is not the best.;#
D) The author mentions that the Old Europeans faded away after the incursions of the Indo-Europeans; in addition, he does not mention any change in the farming style of Old Europeans. Finally, Basque is only one of the three mentioned examples of languages with no Indo-European origin, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) No meeting of the Indo-Europeans in the Black Sea neither “turmoil” being “under ways” is mentioned in the text; besides, the author does not indicate that the Basque is the ancestor of the Sami languages, so this answer is wrong.

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16 
Question 16 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
What does the word “their” highlighted in paragraph 1 refer to
Opción múltiple
A) Designers;#
B) Signs;#
C) Paintings;#
D) Sculptures;#
E) Artists
E
A) The author indicates that “Pop artists… used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures”, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The author indicates that “Pop artists… used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures”, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The author indicates that “Pop artists… used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures”, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The author indicates that “Pop artists… used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures”, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) This is the best answer! The author indicates that “Pop artists… used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures”.

;#

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17 
Question 17 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
 
The word “thrived” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
Opción múltiple
A) disappeared;#
B) consolidated;#
C) reacted;#
D) flourished;#
E) contributed
D
A) The author mentions that Abstract impressionism had flourished or developed after the war, but the meaning of the word “disappeared” is the opposite of this, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The author mentions that Abstract impressionism had flourished or developed after the war, but he does not make reference to any consolidation of the movement, so this answer is not the best.;#
C) The author does not mention any reaction related to Abstract impressionism, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) This is the best answer! The author mentions that Abstract impressionism had flourished or developed after the war, and this is the meaning of the word “thrived”, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) The author does not mention the word “thrived” in relation to any contribution made by Abstract impressionism, so this answer is wrong.

;#
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18 
Question 18 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
 
Why does the author mention the word “collage” in paragraph 2?
Opción múltiple
A) To provide an example of the achievements of Dadaism;#
B) To provide an example of reactions against Abstract impressionism;#
C) To provide an example of the innovative techniques employed in art of the XX Century;#
D) To provide an example of defined imagery;#
E) To provide an example of how Pop art was expressed
C
A) The text indicates that Dadaism “advanced” beyond previous movements, but objectives and achievements related to it are not indicated, so this answer is not the best.;#
B) Collage is mentioned in the text as a characteristic of Dadaism, but not as a reaction to another movement, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! The author indicates that Dadaism “advanced” from other previous forms of art by using “modern techniques such as collage”.;#
D) A connection between “imagery” and collage is not established in the text, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The text mentions “collage” as an example of the techniques used by Dadaism, but it is never directly linked to pop art by the writer, so this answer is wrong.

;#
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19 
Question 19 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
​ 
Which of the following would most likely have been used by a Pop artist as material to form a sculpture?
Opción múltiple
A) a chisel;#
B) a tree;#
C) a marble rock;#
D) a China vase;#
E) a can of soda
E
A) The text indicates that Pop artists used manufactured ordinary objects to produce their art, but a chisel is usually related to producing a sculpture from a shapeless rock to start creating a shape from scratch, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The text indicates that Pop artists used “ordinary stuff” that represented “the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived”, and a tree is rather a natural object that does not represent mass-production by itself, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The text indicates that Pop artists used “ordinary stuff” that represented “the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived”, and a marble rock does not have an evident association to mass-production, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The text indicates that Pop artists used “ordinary stuff” to produce their art without making distinctions “between good and bad taste”, and the word “China” is usually associated with an antique artisanal tradition previous to the times of mass-production, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) This is the best answer! The text indicates that Pop artists used “ordinary stuff” representing “mass-consumption” to produce their art.

;#

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20 
Question 20 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
 
All of the following about Robert Rauschenberg are true except
Opción múltiple

A) His subject matter was black and white.;#
B) He produced Coca-Cola bottles.;#
C) He is considered the beginner of Pop art.;#
D) He believed in merging sculpture and painting.;#
E) He used solvents to copy pictures from printed media.
A
A) This is the best answer! The author explains that Rauschenberg used black and white as a technique at the beginning of his career, but not as subject matter.;#
B) The author mentions that Rauschenberg created Coca-Cola bottles, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The author mentions that Rauschenberg “is usually considered the father of the Pop art”, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The author mentions that Rauschenberg believed in combining sculpture and painting, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The author explains that Rauschenberg used solvents to transfer images from newspapers and magazines to canvas, so this answer is wrong.;#
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21 
Question 21 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
 
Go back to the passage and look for the letters A, B, C, D and E in bold that indicate where the following sentence could be added in paragraph 4.

He innovated by producing a technique that allowed him to make exact duplications without having to paint the original image more than once.

Where would the sentence best fit?
Opción múltiple
A) A ;#
B) B ;#
C) C ;#
D) D ;#
E) E

C
A) The sentence to be added anticipates the description of the process that allowed Warhol to create replicated images, but the sentence following A is about his ideas on Pop art, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The sentence to be added anticipates the description of a process used to create replicated images, but the sentence following B is a description of the works that brought him early fame, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! The sentence preceding C mentions Warhol made “repetitive paintings”, and the following one explains the process he followed to do it.;#
D) The sentence to be added anticipates the description of the technique to create replicated images, but the sentence following D is a description of a stage in his artistic career, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) The sentence to be added anticipates the description of the process that Warhol used to create replicated images, but E marks the end of the paragraph, so this answer is wrong.

;#
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22 
Question 22 of 37
 
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
According to the text what can be inferred to be the main difference between an assemblage and an installation?
Opción múltiple
A) An installation is made with ordinary objects while an assemblage is not.;#
B) An installation was first proposed by Andy Warhol while an assemblage was not.;#
C) An installation was first proposed by Rauschenberg while an assemblage was not.;#
D) An installation is made using an original art object while an assemblage is not.;#
E) An installation is made with a common place object while an assemblage is not.

E
A) According to the text, an installation is created with “a common place object”, not with “objects”, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The text does not mention the relationship of Andy Warhol with the creation of installations, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The text does not mention the relationship of Rauschenberg with the creation installations, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) According to the text, installations are made with “a common place object”, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) This is the best answer! According to the text, an installation is created using “a common place object”, while an assemblage is composed by some objects put together at random.

;#

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23 
Question 23 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
 
Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information of the highlighted sentence in paragraph 5?
Opción múltiple
A) The shared characteristic of the items in an assemblage is that all of them are originally not the product of an artistic creation, but of mass-production.;#
B) The manufactured materials used to create an assemblage have some common artistic features. ;#
C) Mass-production is a common feature used in assemblage to make it an art form.;#
D) The common characteristic of manufactured objects is that they can be artistically used in assemblages.;#
E) The objects used in assemblages are originally art objects until they are used to produce an assemblage.

A
A) This is the best answer! The highlighted sentence indicates that all objects used in an assemblage are the result of manufacture and mass-production which makes them have no artistic purpose until they become part of an assemblage.;#
B) The highlighted sentence indicates that the simple manufactured materials used in the objects that are part of an assemblage have no original artistic value, so this answer is not the best.;#
C) The highlighted sentence does not indicate that mass-production is the reason why assemblage is an artistic expression, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The highlighted sentence does not indicate that every single manufactured object can be artistically used to create an assemblage, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The highlighted sentence indicates that the objects forming assemblages have originally no artistic value until they are used to produce an assemblage, so this answer is wrong.;#
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24 
Question 24 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
 
The word “conceivers” in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to
Opción múltiple
A) consumers;#
B) opponents;#
C) founders;#
D) admirers;#
E) critics

C
A) The word “conceivers” is used to refer to the “founders” of Pop art, not to its “consumers” (people who bought and followed it in galleries), so this answer is wrong.;#
B) The word “conceivers” means “founders”, but the word “opponents” expresses the opposite, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! The word “conceivers” is used to refer to those who founded the Pop art movement. ;#
D) The word “conceivers” is close in meaning to “founders”, but “admirers” means people who followed them after the movement was already established, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The word “critics” refers to those who express their critical views on art, but not to its founders which is the meaning of “conceivers” in relation to Pop art, so this answer is wrong.

;#
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25 
Question 25 of 37
 
Pop art was an artistic movement that incorporated elements of popular culture and consumerism that developed as a British and later American cultural movement of the late 1950´s and the 1960’s. The movement’s name is mainly attributed to the critic Lawrence Alloway who made reference to the commonplace iconography of the images created by the movement. The main purpose driving Pop artists like Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol was their having recognized the generality inherent to the modern mass-produced culture that emphasized commonplace symbols and folklore over the elevated standards of other higher art forms. Pop artists rejected distinctions between good and bad taste and used ordinary stuff like food packaging designs and highway signs to produce their paintings and sculptures as the artistic expressions of a criticism to the mass-consumption centered society in which they lived.
 
Abstract impressionism thrived in the post war context. It made a claim to the use of non-representational techniques; in its beginnings, Pop art was considered a reaction against this movement inasmuch as it proposed the use of a defined imagery taken from every day contexts. Regarding its relation to other XX Century artistic movements, Pop art took after the Dadaist movement from the 1920’s that advanced beyond what had previously been done in arts by means of its use of political and cultural situations as its subject matter that was expressed using modern techniques such as collage.
 
Robert Rauschenberg is usually considered the father of the Pop art movement. His art dealt with popular culture, history and mass media in the United States as its subject matter. He started with black and white paintings and later moved on to create Coca-Cola bottles, traffic barricades and stuffed birds which he named “combine” paintings. By such a term he meant a combination of sculpture and painting. He went as far in his revolutionary proposals as to experiment with incorporating newspaper and magazine photographs into his paintings by means of a process based on the use of solvents to transfer them directly into the canvas.
 
Andy Warhol was a highly innovative Pop art producer. A He believed in the idea that pop art was to cause boredom in its audience and point out the dehumanization of modern life. B His early fame came from his repetitive paintings of soap cans and soap pad carton sculptures.C It was by using a silk-screen process that he managed to replicate an image in an endless manner. D This stage in his artistic life was followed by the production of a series of celebrity portraits in garish colors.E
 
One of the most striking manifestations of pop art was the creation of installations and assemblages. In the first one, a common place object is used to evoke an idea related to its qualities and origin. Installations can be temporary or permanent and usually only achieve their artistic purpose inside the space where they are conceived and created. As for an assemblage, it consists of creating a three-dimensional composition that is brought about by putting together objects that seem to have been collected and placed in the same place at random. The common feature for all the objects used to produce an assemblage is that they are made of manufactured materials not originally intended as art objects since they are the mere products of a modern mass-production life style.
 
What made Pop art such a cultural and artistic event was its reflection of the social situation at that time and its use of easily understandable images to convey its message by using icons that almost immediately were taken by the mass media. Its conceiversviewed it as a democratic, non-discriminatory art that joined both critical and average viewers. Though it never achieved a serious acceptance, it was recognized as a form that fit into the mass-media technological consumption society into which it had been born.
 
The author includes the word “democratic” in paragraph 6
Opción múltiple
A) to point out that pop art was original from the United States;#
B) to emphasize that Pop art was designed to be appreciated by every viewer;#
C) to show why Pop art achieved recognition;#
D) to explain why Pop art did not discriminate people;#
E) to indicate the relationship between Pop art and mass-media

B
A) The author does not mention any relation between the word “democratic” and the country where Pop art originated; in addition, in the first paragraph it is stated that Pop art started in Britain before coming to the United States, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) This is the best answer! The writer mentions that Pop art was a “democratic” form that “joined” all types of viewers.;#
C) The word “democratic” is used to explain how its creators viewed Pop art, but not to explain its recognition, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The words “democratic” and “non-discriminatory” are part of the features of Pop art listed by the author. They are not presented as one being the reason for the existence of the other, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The author uses the word “democratic” to explain why Pop art appealed to every viewer, but not to indicate that it had a relation to mass-media, so this answer is not the best.;#
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26 
Question 26 of 37
 
Read the following passage
Digital technology has diversified and personalized our total experience, demonstrating that we can interact with a rational world in an individualized manner. Digitalization allows the workforce to be more productive as well as to fulfill their family and social expectations. On a more urgent level, digital technology, if encouraged, may be a major player in the fight against global warming as it could help reduce green house gas emissions. B
 
A wave of digitalization has overcome our collective civilization. Digitalization affects how and where we work, interact with each other and treat our planet. The aforementioned statement is true to the extent that this global “movement” is no longer limited to an information context because communication is far from the only area affected by digitalization. Such a revolution is comparable to the widespread effects that mass production had in the 19th century when large numbers of people came into contact with one another as a direct result of the industrial revolution. C.
 
The demands generated by the industrial revolution along with its subsequent social, political and economic repercussions, in effect, determined society’s entire profile. One of the effects was the birth of urbanization when millions of people, who had been working in the agricultural sector, moved to the growing urban centers, converting small towns into densely populated urban zones. This movement began in Britain in the late 1700s and spread to other western countries. To some extent this phenomenon has continued until to now. For example, many workers from Mexico and Central America still travel to the United States hoping to find employment opportunities.   
 
Since the dawn of the industrial revolution, and all throughout the 20th Century, there has been an ongoing trend of urbanization; and in 2010 it was found that half the planet’s population now resides in large urban areas for the first time in history. An example of an urban area would be the populated stretch of land from Los Angeles, California to Tijuana, Mexico. Large scale immigration may have disappeared, but there still exists massive amounts of movement within cities as people travel to work every day. Nevertheless, in the near future we might see a decrease in this trend as people are starting to realize that they can work wherever they want while remaining productive and supporting their lifestyles. A.
 
Due to the advantages of the digital age, people are not necessarily limited by the temporal-spatial restrictions of having a particular job. Nor will they need to be close to a certain market. Based on a recent survey done by United American Labor, slightly more than 4% of the U.S. workforce considers the home to be their primary place of work. This figure represents around 6 million Americans, though it doesn’t include people who are their own boss without office space and employees. 3 of the 6 million are home based businesses, providing a variety of services and products. However, this data is extremely conservative, even deceiving if we take into account that there are almost 50 million people with jobs in telecommunications or telemarketing. Any job that is telecommunications compatible is, by default, also compatible with digital communication. Nor do these figures contemplate the growing number of people who are going into work less often during the week. Nevertheless, there is a momentum here suggesting that one day people will not need to travel to work.
 
      It might also be the case that our social and leisure time will not be restricted by the inconvenience of physical location and distance. Today people are using social networking to keep up with their friends and family. The established contact could be with people living in another country or just across town. Emails, texts and tweets have complemented traditional forms of social interaction. By monitoring all email communication at an undisclosed US city with a population of slightly more than 1 million people, Holland Data Services found that people maintain between 25 and 40 separate ongoing communications per day. What is important here is that these exchanges are not related to their professional duties. Such digital communications actually nurture relationships; plus, these contacts can lead to further social interactions as messages are forwarded and people share friends on Facebook. There is little doubt that digitalization is influencing our professional and leisure time, changing how we work and socialize. We even see social groups being formed across the globe through video games, collective intelligence communities, blogging, and twittering. What all of these activities have in common is that they can be done from home. If a large percentage of the population is kept at home, this should reduce production burdens and allow us to be more efficient overall, completely altering our tastes and expectations. Given this digital lifestyle, will people stop moving to the cities, traveling in general and commuting to work?
 
There is a lot of evidence supporting the thesis that digitalization is permeating our entire experience. We take this for granted and do not associate it with a long term trend. For instance, as a direct result of a digitalized workspace, parents are able to perform their professional duties at home. In addition, the practice of outsourcing is a direct consequence of digital communication and production. Here many services have been displaced overseas because information can be received and shipped with the same speed as it could if the data had been produced in the same country. This trend will continue. Throughout Europe and North America 2.7 million jobs will be exported to places like India and Vietnam by 2013. There is another phenomenon related to the above, though not as drastic. It is called “Home Sourcing”, a title conceived by Dr. Roland Murray, an urban planning professor at the University of Rochester, NY. Dr. Murray conceived home sourcing to categorize the growing number of cases where people have exchanged the office for their home as their working headquarters.
 
    One can even take a vacation while still being “on the clock” as long as he or she has reliable communication with their place of work, office, clients, market, or employees.  It is quite common, and has been for some time, that people communicate with their office or clients via the web. Plus, Skype, Twitter and Facebook are becoming more prevalent in terms of their use in keeping us on top of our responsibilities. How can this new era of digitalization have a positive effect on global warming? D
           Many regions of the globe, those most active in the generation of green house gasses, are transforming from an orientation defined by manufacturing, mainly concerned with the production of tangible objects, to territories whose industries are more service oriented. Recall that industrialization demanded massive immigration which laid the foundations for urbanization. Factories needed a large quantity of workers, and these factories had a physical location that was operated by a system of efficiency characterized by cost-effective production. The labor force worked by the clock, workers punching in and out so that their productivity could be maximized for the benefit of the owners. This system is an example of scientific management whose principle idea was to improve productivity, thereby making the factory more economically efficient. This was an efficiency paradigm that required the factory workers to live in the same city and work on a fixed schedule. Not everyone, especially those with children, could afford to live close to the office or factory; therefore, in the 20th Century we saw the emergence of the suburbs. This entire scheme was for the benefit of the owners of production. Now, we have a more fractured system, one determined by the individual. E
 
           Given the advent of the internet and the ability to work at a distance, we have an entirely new understanding of an efficient society. This new conceptualization has altered production and allowed for a new lifestyle based on individual needs and freedoms—a personalized understanding of efficiency. Space is no longer an obstacle, nor is it a goal. A worker can make time, occupy two different places at once, and define time as opposed to living on someone else’s time. If this is the case, we may see a decline in a contingency of urbanization in the near future, that of daily commutes to work.
 
          According to Raymond Hughes, chief of NASA’s global warming task force, massive urbanization, or urban sprawl, is a major contributor to global warming. 70% of green house gas emissions are generated by all the world’s cities of a million people or more. This fact tells us two things: one, it demonstrates that global warming is directly related to population density, but it also suggests that the solution is within cities themselves. Now what goes on within a city that generates so much carbon dioxide? Well, to start there is the production of goods and private transportation. Commuting to work by car is a major contributor to green house gas emission. For example, 7% of the US’s annual gas consumption is spent on looking for a parking space, which is part of the commuting process.
 
           Commuting and the emergence of suburbs go hand in hand. A commuter lives in a suburb or in a bedroom community and travels to work in the center of the city. On the other hand, as urban sprawl creates greater and greater distances from downtown areas, businesses of all types have emerged in these periphery areas. Having these new businesses and services so close to home enables one to stay in the suburbs and perhaps walk more. Digitalization could one day limit the immediate need to travel on a daily basis. As long as an area of town is diverse enough to meet the needs of their citizens, then there would be fewer reasons to travel long distances. Ideally people would walk to the mall, the hospital or the grocery store. Hughes refers to this concept as “the frozen city”, not to suggest that people stop moving, but that they would be traveling less by car and working out of the home. Working and socializing through the internet is the key to the operations of a frozen city, thereby showing digitalization to be a major player in the reduction of green house gas emissions.
 
  
          What additional conclusions could be made by the likely possibility that people will be spending more time on the Internet? If we take this to the extreme, production could be greatly affected by digitalization; therefore, more things consumed would be digitalized. We might be consuming digital products. One day, time on the Internet may be the new currency. The need to produce material things will decrease, thereby having a positive effect on the planet. So we can see how an increased attention to digitalization could help reduce global warming by eliminating the need to travel by car and produce material things. 
 
Refer to this version of the passage to answer the questions that follow. 
What is the purpose of the passage?
Opción múltiple
A) To convince people to stop moving to cities;#
B) To describe the process that led us to be able to be in two places at once thereby showing digitalization to be crucial to the effort to slow global warming;#
C) To show the degree to which digitalization has affected our society by suggesting that it could even have a positive effect on global warming;#
D) To demonstrate that the most effective way to decrease global warming would be to encourage further digitalization;#
E) To make a direct link between immigration and global warming

C
A) This answer is wrong and contrary to the point of the passage. In fact, cities are mentioned as a possible solution to global warming.;#
B) This is a good answer but not the best. The passage does describe how digitalization could be a player in helping reduce green house gas emissions. The passage describes a process, but the purpose was not to demonstrate how we arrived at being able to be in two places at once.;#
C) This is the best answer. The passage compares digitalization to the industrial revolution, each having effects on our entire civilization. The passage shows the breadth of the effects by suggesting that global warming can be slowed if digitalization is encouraged.;#
D) This is a good answer but not the best. The passage never suggests that digitalization is the most effective way to decrease global warming. The passage only suggests that digitalization could play a major role in decreasing global warming.;#
E) The link between immigration and global warming is too attenuated. The passage makes a direct link between commuting, not immigration, and global warming. This answer is incorrect.

;#
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.
27 
Question 27 of 37
 
Read the following passage
Digital technology has diversified and personalized our total experience, demonstrating that we can interact with a rational world in an individualized manner. Digitalization allows the workforce to be more productive as well as to fulfill their family and social expectations. On a more urgent level, digital technology, if encouraged, may be a major player in the fight against global warming as it could help reduce green house gas emissions. B
 
A wave of digitalization has overcome our collective civilization. Digitalization affects how and where we work, interact with each other and treat our planet. The aforementioned statement is true to the extent that this global “movement” is no longer limited to an information context because communication is far from the only area affected by digitalization. Such a revolution is comparable to the widespread effects that mass production had in the 19th century when large numbers of people came into contact with one another as a direct result of the industrial revolution. C.
 
The demands generated by the industrial revolution along with its subsequent social, political and economic repercussions, in effect, determined society’s entire profile. One of the effects was the birth of urbanization when millions of people, who had been working in the agricultural sector, moved to the growing urban centers, converting small towns into densely populated urban zones. This movement began in Britain in the late 1700s and spread to other western countries. To some extent this phenomenon has continued until to now. For example, many workers from Mexico and Central America still travel to the United States hoping to find employment opportunities.
 
Since the dawn of the industrial revolution, and all throughout the 20th Century, there has been an ongoing trend of urbanization; and in 2010 it was found that half the planet’s population now resides in large urban areas for the first time in history. An example of an urban area would be the populated stretch of land from Los Angeles, California to Tijuana, Mexico. Large scale immigration may have disappeared, but there still exists massive amounts of movement within cities as people travel to work every day. Nevertheless, in the near future we might see a decrease in this trend as people are starting to realize that they can work wherever they want while remaining productive and supporting their lifestyles. A.
 
Due to the advantages of the digital age, people are not necessarily limited by the temporal-spatial restrictions of having a particular job. Nor will they need to be close to a certain market. Based on a recent survey done by United American Labor, slightly more than 4% of the U.S. workforce considers the home to be their primary place of work. This figure represents around 6 million Americans, though it doesn’t include people who are their own boss without office space and employees. 3 of the 6 million are home based businesses, providing a variety of services and products. However, this data is extremely conservative, even deceiving if we take into account that there are almost 50 million people with jobs in telecommunications or telemarketing. Any job that is telecommunications compatible is, by default, also compatible with digital communication. Nor do these figures contemplate the growing number of people who are going into work less often during the week. Nevertheless, there is a momentum here suggesting that one day people will not need to travel to work.
 
It might also be the case that our social and leisure time will not be restricted by the inconvenience of physical location and distance. Today people are using social networking to keep up with their friends and family. The established contact could be with people living in another country or just across town. Emails, texts and tweets have complemented traditional forms of social interaction. By monitoring all email communication at an undisclosed US city with a population of slightly more than 1 million people, Holland Data Services found that people maintain between 25 and 40 separate ongoing communications per day. What is important here is that these exchanges are not related to their professional duties. Such digital communications actually nurture relationships; plus, these contacts can lead to further social interactions as messages are forwarded and people share friends on Facebook. There is little doubt that digitalization is influencing our professional and leisure time, changing how we work and socialize. We even see social groups being formed across the globe through video games, collective intelligence communities, blogging, and twittering. What all of these activities have in common is that they can be done from home. If a large percentage of the population is kept at home, this should reduce production burdens and allow us to be more efficient overall, completely altering our tastes and expectations. Given this digital lifestyle, will people stop moving to the cities, traveling in general and commuting to work?
 
There is a lot of evidence supporting the thesis that digitalization is permeating our entire experience. We take this for granted and do not associate it with a long term trend. For instance, as a direct result of a digitalized workspace, parents are able to perform their professional duties at home. In addition, the practice of outsourcing is a direct consequence of digital communication and production. Here many services have been displaced overseas because information can be received and shipped with the same speed as it could if the data had been produced in the same country. This trend will continue. Throughout Europe and North America 2.7 million jobs will be exported to places like India and Vietnam by 2013. There is another phenomenon related to the above, though not as drastic. It is called “Home Sourcing”, a title conceived by Dr. Roland Murray, an urban planning professor at the University of Rochester, NY. Dr. Murray conceived home sourcing to categorize the growing number of cases where people have exchanged the office for their home as their working headquarters.
 
One can even take a vacation while still being “on the clock” as long as he or she has reliable communication with their place of work, office, clients, market, or employees. It is quite common, and has been for some time, that people communicate with their office or clients via the web. Plus, Skype, Twitter and Facebook are becoming more prevalent in terms of their use in keeping us on top of our responsibilities. How can this new era of digitalization have a positive effect on global warming? D
 
Many regions of the globe, those most active in the generation of green house gasses, are transforming from an orientation defined by manufacturing, mainly concerned with the production of tangible objects, to territories whose industries are more service oriented. Recall that industrialization demanded massive immigration which laid the foundations for urbanization. Factories needed a large quantity of workers, and these factories had a physical location that was operated by a system of efficiency characterized by cost-effective production. The labor force worked by the clock, workers punching in and out so that their productivity could be maximized for the benefit of the owners. This system is an example of scientific management whose principle idea was to improve productivity, thereby making the factory more economically efficient. This was an efficiency paradigm that required the factory workers to live in the same city and work on a fixed schedule. Not everyone, especially those with children, could afford to live close to the office or factory; therefore, in the 20th Century we saw the emergence of the suburbs. This entire scheme was for the benefit of the owners of production. Now, we have a more fractured system, one determined by the individual. E
 
Given the advent of the internet and the ability to work at a distance, we have an entirely new understanding of an efficient society. This new conceptualization has altered production and allowed for a new lifestyle based on individual needs and freedoms—a personalized understanding of efficiency. Space is no longer an obstacle, nor is it a goal. A worker can make time, occupy two different places at once, and define time as opposed to living on someone else’s time. If this is the case, we may see a decline in a contingency of urbanization in the near future, that of daily commutes to work.
 
According to Raymond Hughes, chief of NASA’s global warming task force, massive urbanization, or urban sprawl, is a major contributor to global warming. 70% of green house gas emissions are generated by all the world’s cities of a million people or more. This fact tells us two things: one, it demonstrates that global warming is directly related to population density, but it also suggests that the solution is within cities themselves. Now what goes on within a city that generates so much carbon dioxide? Well, to start there is the production of goods and private transportation. Commuting to work by car is a major contributor to green house gas emission. For example, 7% of the US’s annual gas consumption is spent on looking for a parking space, which is part of the commuting process.
Commuting and the emergence of suburbs go hand in hand. A commuter lives in a suburb or in a bedroom community and travels to work in the center of the city. On the other hand, as urban sprawl creates greater and greater distances from downtown areas, businesses of all types have emerged in these periphery areas. Having these new businesses and services so close to home enables one to stay in the suburbs and perhaps walk more. Digitalization could one day limit the immediate need to travel on a daily basis. As long as an area of town is diverse enough to meet the needs of their citizens, then there would be fewer reasons to travel long distances. Ideally people would walk to the mall, the hospital or the grocery store. Hughes refers to this concept as “the frozen city”, not to suggest that people stop moving, but that they would be traveling less by car and working out of the home. Working and socializing through the internet is the key to the operations of a frozen city, thereby showing digitalization to be a major player in the reduction of green house gas emissions.
 
What additional conclusions could be made by the likely possibility that people will be spending more time on the Internet? If we take this to the extreme, production could be greatly affected by digitalization; therefore, more things consumed would be digitalized. We might be consuming digital products. One day, time on the Internet may be the new currency. The need to produce material things will decrease, thereby having a positive effect on the planet. So we can see how an increased attention to digitalization could help reduce global warming by eliminating the need to travel by car and produce material things.
 
Refer to this version of the passage to answer the questions that follow.
 
In the first line of paragraph 8, “on the clock” is closest to which meaning?
Opción múltiple
A) To be working on someone else’s time;#
B) To be working;#
C) To be waiting for something;#
D) To have your own time;#
E) To be standing on a clock

B
A) This is a good answer but not the best. The author mentions that workers during the industrial revolution worked on the owner’s time; however, the author juxtaposes the model of efficiency of the industrial revolution with that of digitalization where we are able to make our own time. This answer actually contradicts the purpose of the passage. ;#
B) This is the best answer. The purpose of that part of the passage was to demonstrate how people are able to be working wherever they are, even while on vacation. ;#
C) This answer is incorrect. Though the reader may think that this could mean that one is waiting for work to end—for something. However, “on the clock” suggests something much more precise, and not general like the phrase, “for something” implies. “On the clock” meant one thing in the industrial era and another in the digital age; therefore, the phrase’s use in the passage was always intended to have a specific meaning.;#
D) This is a good answer but not the best. “On the clock” in the digital world could mean to have your own time, but this would be forgetting that a worker is still under some kind of obligation. This answer is too open to interpretation, and the phrase’s use in the passage was always intended to have a specific meaning.;#
E) This answer is absurd. If the reader were to superimpose the phrase of standing on a clock over “on the clock” then the paragraph would not make sense. This answer is wrong.
;#
.
.
28 
Question 28 of 37
 
Read the following passage
Digital technology has diversified and personalized our total experience, demonstrating that we can interact with a rational world in an individualized manner. Digitalization allows the workforce to be more productive as well as to fulfill their family and social expectations. On a more urgent level, digital technology, if encouraged, may be a major player in the fight against global warming as it could help reduce green house gas emissions. B
 
A wave of digitalization has overcome our collective civilization. Digitalization affects how and where we work, interact with each other and treat our planet. The aforementioned statement is true to the extent that this global “movement” is no longer limited to an information context because communication is far from the only area affected by digitalization. Such a revolution is comparable to the widespread effects that mass production had in the 19th century when large numbers of people came into contact with one another as a direct result of the industrial revolution. C.
 
The demands generated by the industrial revolution along with its subsequent social, political and economic repercussions, in effect, determined society’s entire profile. One of the effects was the birth of urbanization when millions of people, who had been working in the agricultural sector, moved to the growing urban centers, converting small towns into densely populated urban zones. This movement began in Britain in the late 1700s and spread to other western countries. To some extent this phenomenon has continued until to now. For example, many workers from Mexico and Central America still travel to the United States hoping to find employment opportunities.
 
Since the dawn of the industrial revolution, and all throughout the 20th Century, there has been an ongoing trend of urbanization; and in 2010 it was found that half the planet’s population now resides in large urban areas for the first time in history. An example of an urban area would be the populated stretch of land from Los Angeles, California to Tijuana, Mexico. Large scale immigration may have disappeared, but there still exists massive amounts of movement within cities as people travel to work every day. Nevertheless, in the near future we might see a decrease in this trend as people are starting to realize that they can work wherever they want while remaining productive and supporting their lifestyles. A.
 
Due to the advantages of the digital age, people are not necessarily limited by the temporal-spatial restrictions of having a particular job. Nor will they need to be close to a certain market. Based on a recent survey done by United American Labor, slightly more than 4% of the U.S. workforce considers the home to be their primary place of work. This figure represents around 6 million Americans, though it doesn’t include people who are their own boss without office space and employees. 3 of the 6 million are home based businesses, providing a variety of services and products. However, this data is extremely conservative, even deceiving if we take into account that there are almost 50 million people with jobs in telecommunications or telemarketing. Any job that is telecommunications compatible is, by default, also compatible with digital communication. Nor do these figures contemplate the growing number of people who are going into work less often during the week. Nevertheless, there is a momentum here suggesting that one day people will not need to travel to work.
 
It might also be the case that our social and leisure time will not be restricted by the inconvenience of physical location and distance. Today people are using social networking to keep up with their friends and family. The established contact could be with people living in another country or just across town. Emails, texts and tweets have complemented traditional forms of social interaction. By monitoring all email communication at an undisclosed US city with a population of slightly more than 1 million people, Holland Data Services found that people maintain between 25 and 40 separate ongoing communications per day. What is important here is that these exchanges are not related to their professional duties. Such digital communications actually nurture relationships; plus, these contacts can lead to further social interactions as messages are forwarded and people share friends on Facebook. There is little doubt that digitalization is influencing our professional and leisure time, changing how we work and socialize. We even see social groups being formed across the globe through video games, collective intelligence communities, blogging, and twittering. What all of these activities have in common is that they can be done from home. If a large percentage of the population is kept at home, this should reduce production burdens and allow us to be more efficient overall, completely altering our tastes and expectations. Given this digital lifestyle, will people stop moving to the cities, traveling in general and commuting to work?
 
There is a lot of evidence supporting the thesis that digitalization is permeating our entire experience. We take this for granted and do not associate it with a long term trend. For instance, as a direct result of a digitalized workspace, parents are able to perform their professional duties at home. In addition, the practice of outsourcing is a direct consequence of digital communication and production. Here many services have been displaced overseas because information can be received and shipped with the same speed as it could if the data had been produced in the same country. This trend will continue. Throughout Europe and North America 2.7 million jobs will be exported to places like India and Vietnam by 2013. There is another phenomenon related to the above, though not as drastic. It is called “Home Sourcing”, a title conceived by Dr. Roland Murray, an urban planning professor at the University of Rochester, NY. Dr. Murray conceived home sourcing to categorize the growing number of cases where people have exchanged the office for their home as their working headquarters.
 
One can even take a vacation while still being “on the clock” as long as he or she has reliable communication with their place of work, office, clients, market, or employees. It is quite common, and has been for some time, that people communicate with their office or clients via the web. Plus, Skype, Twitter and Facebook are becoming more prevalent in terms of their use in keeping us on top of our responsibilities. How can this new era of digitalization have a positive effect on global warming? D
 
Many regions of the globe, those most active in the generation of green house gasses, are transforming from an orientation defined by manufacturing, mainly concerned with the production of tangible objects, to territories whose industries are more service oriented. Recall that industrialization demanded massive immigration which laid the foundations for urbanization. Factories needed a large quantity of workers, and these factories had a physical location that was operated by a system of efficiency characterized by cost-effective production. The labor force worked by the clock, workers punching in and out so that their productivity could be maximized for the benefit of the owners. This system is an example of scientific management whose principle idea was to improve productivity, thereby making the factory more economically efficient. This was an efficiency paradigm that required the factory workers to live in the same city and work on a fixed schedule. Not everyone, especially those with children, could afford to live close to the office or factory; therefore, in the 20th Century we saw the emergence of the suburbs. This entire scheme was for the benefit of the owners of production. Now, we have a more fractured system, one determined by the individual. E
 
Given the advent of the internet and the ability to work at a distance, we have an entirely new understanding of an efficient society. This new conceptualization has altered production and allowed for a new lifestyle based on individual needs and freedoms—a personalized understanding of efficiency. Space is no longer an obstacle, nor is it a goal. A worker can make time, occupy two different places at once, and define time as opposed to living on someone else’s time. If this is the case, we may see a decline in a contingency of urbanization in the near future, that of daily commutes to work.
 
According to Raymond Hughes, chief of NASA’s global warming task force, massive urbanization, or urban sprawl, is a major contributor to global warming. 70% of green house gas emissions are generated by all the world’s cities of a million people or more. This fact tells us two things: one, it demonstrates that global warming is directly related to population density, but it also suggests that the solution is within cities themselves. Now what goes on within a city that generates so much carbon dioxide? Well, to start there is the production of goods and private transportation. Commuting to work by car is a major contributor to green house gas emission. For example, 7% of the US’s annual gas consumption is spent on looking for a parking space, which is part of the commuting process.
Commuting and the emergence of suburbs go hand in hand. A commuter lives in a suburb or in a bedroom community and travels to work in the center of the city. On the other hand, as urban sprawl creates greater and greater distances from downtown areas, businesses of all types have emerged in these periphery areas. Having these new businesses and services so close to home enables one to stay in the suburbs and perhaps walk more. Digitalization could one day limit the immediate need to travel on a daily basis. As long as an area of town is diverse enough to meet the needs of their citizens, then there would be fewer reasons to travel long distances. Ideally people would walk to the mall, the hospital or the grocery store. Hughes refers to this concept as “the frozen city”, not to suggest that people stop moving, but that they would be traveling less by car and working out of the home. Working and socializing through the internet is the key to the operations of a frozen city, thereby showing digitalization to be a major player in the reduction of green house gas emissions.
 
What additional conclusions could be made by the likely possibility that people will be spending more time on the Internet? If we take this to the extreme, production could be greatly affected by digitalization; therefore, more things consumed would be digitalized. We might be consuming digital products. One day, time on the Internet may be the new currency. The need to produce material things will decrease, thereby having a positive effect on the planet. So we can see how an increased attention to digitalization could help reduce global warming by eliminating the need to travel by car and produce material things.
 
Refer to this version of the passage to answer the questions that follow.
 
Which of the following lines would best describe the tone of the author’s words in the last paragraph?
Opción múltiple
A) objective and neutral;#
B) curious and excited;#
C) cynical and sarcastic;#
D) mysterious and teasing;#
E) speculative and hopefu
E
A) This answer is wrong since the author admits to being hypothetical when he says, “if we take this to the extreme”. To be objective is to stick to the case or facts.;#
B) This is a good answer but not the best. The author is not so much curious as he is exploratory, proposing a possibility on previous arguments. He is not asking questions; rather, he is inducing from previous data. There are no qualitative words to suggest that he is excited.;#
C) This is a good answer but not the best. The author, by suggesting a possible solution to global warming, is not being cynical. He sounds positive in thinking that digitalization can have that much influence.;#
D) This is a good answer but not the best. Though the author is speculating about time on the Internet being the next currency, this is not a mysterious statement. He supports it with an attempt at being logical which is not mysterious. Nevertheless, the suggestion of time on the Internet being the next currency could be taken by some as a form of teasing; but the author is not teasing the reader. He is taking his argument to the next level, based on data. ;#
E) This is the best answer. The author is speculating on a possible future based on his assumption that we will be spending more time on the Internet. His possible future, however, seems to be a bit enthusiastic about the effects of digitalization. The Internet being the next currency is founded purely on the author’s opinion and not on data as were the previous arguments.
;#

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.
29 
Question 29 of 37
 
Read the following passage
Digital technology has diversified and personalized our total experience, demonstrating that we can interact with a rational world in an individualized manner. Digitalization allows the workforce to be more productive as well as to fulfill their family and social expectations. On a more urgent level, digital technology, if encouraged, may be a major player in the fight against global warming as it could help reduce green house gas emissions. B
 
A wave of digitalization has overcome our collective civilization. Digitalization affects how and where we work, interact with each other and treat our planet. The aforementioned statement is true to the extent that this global “movement” is no longer limited to an information context because communication is far from the only area affected by digitalization. Such a revolution is comparable to the widespread effects that mass production had in the 19th century when large numbers of people came into contact with one another as a direct result of the industrial revolution. C.
 
The demands generated by the industrial revolution along with its subsequent social, political and economic repercussions, in effect, determined society’s entire profile. One of the effects was the birth of urbanization when millions of people, who had been working in the agricultural sector, moved to the growing urban centers, converting small towns into densely populated urban zones. This movement began in Britain in the late 1700s and spread to other western countries. To some extent this phenomenon has continued until to now. For example, many workers from Mexico and Central America still travel to the United States hoping to find employment opportunities.
 
Since the dawn of the industrial revolution, and all throughout the 20th Century, there has been an ongoing trend of urbanization; and in 2010 it was found that half the planet’s population now resides in large urban areas for the first time in history. An example of an urban area would be the populated stretch of land from Los Angeles, California to Tijuana, Mexico. Large scale immigration may have disappeared, but there still exists massive amounts of movement within cities as people travel to work every day. Nevertheless, in the near future we might see a decrease in this trend as people are starting to realize that they can work wherever they want while remaining productive and supporting their lifestyles. A.
 
Due to the advantages of the digital age, people are not necessarily limited by the temporal-spatial restrictions of having a particular job. Nor will they need to be close to a certain market. Based on a recent survey done by United American Labor, slightly more than 4% of the U.S. workforce considers the home to be their primary place of work. This figure represents around 6 million Americans, though it doesn’t include people who are their own boss without office space and employees. 3 of the 6 million are home based businesses, providing a variety of services and products. However, this data is extremely conservative, even deceiving if we take into account that there are almost 50 million people with jobs in telecommunications or telemarketing. Any job that is telecommunications compatible is, by default, also compatible with digital communication. Nor do these figures contemplate the growing number of people who are going into work less often during the week. Nevertheless, there is a momentum here suggesting that one day people will not need to travel to work.
It might also be the case that our social and leisure time will not be restricted by the inconvenience of physical location and distance. Today people are using social networking to keep up with their friends and family. The established contact could be with people living in another country or just across town. Emails, texts and tweets have complemented traditional forms of social interaction. By monitoring all email communication at an undisclosed US city with a population of slightly more than 1 million people, Holland Data Services found that people maintain between 25 and 40 separate ongoing communications per day. What is important here is that these exchanges are not related to their professional duties. Such digital communications actually nurture relationships; plus, these contacts can lead to further social interactions as messages are forwarded and people share friends on Facebook. There is little doubt that digitalization is influencing our professional and leisure time, changing how we work and socialize. We even see social groups being formed across the globe through video games, collective intelligence communities, blogging, and twittering. What all of these activities have in common is that they can be done from home. If a large percentage of the population is kept at home, this should reduce production burdens and allow us to be more efficient overall, completely altering our tastes and expectations. Given this digital lifestyle, will people stop moving to the cities, traveling in general and commuting to work?
 
There is a lot of evidence supporting the thesis that digitalization is permeating our entire experience. We take this for granted and do not associate it with a long term trend. For instance, as a direct result of a digitalized workspace, parents are able to perform their professional duties at home. In addition, the practice of outsourcing is a direct consequence of digital communication and production. Here many services have been displaced overseas because information can be received and shipped with the same speed as it could if the data had been produced in the same country. This trend will continue. Throughout Europe and North America 2.7 million jobs will be exported to places like India and Vietnam by 2013. There is another phenomenon related to the above, though not as drastic. It is called “Home Sourcing”, a title conceived by Dr. Roland Murray, an urban planning professor at the University of Rochester, NY. Dr. Murray conceived home sourcing to categorize the growing number of cases where people have exchanged the office for their home as their working headquarters.
One can even take a vacation while still being “on the clock” as long as he or she has reliable communication with their place of work, office, clients, market, or employees. It is quite common, and has been for some time, that people communicate with their office or clients via the web. Plus, Skype, Twitter and Facebook are becoming more prevalent in terms of their use in keeping us on top of our responsibilities. How can this new era of digitalization have a positive effect on global warming? D
 
Many regions of the globe, those most active in the generation of green house gasses, are transforming from an orientation defined by manufacturing, mainly concerned with the production of tangible objects, to territories whose industries are more service oriented. Recall that industrialization demanded massive immigration which laid the foundations for urbanization. Factories needed a large quantity of workers, and these factories had a physical location that was operated by a system of efficiency characterized by cost-effective production. The labor force worked by the clock, workers punching in and out so that their productivity could be maximized for the benefit of the owners. This system is an example of scientific management whose principle idea was to improve productivity, thereby making the factory more economically efficient. This was an efficiency paradigm that required the factory workers to live in the same city and work on a fixed schedule. Not everyone, especially those with children, could afford to live close to the office or factory; therefore, in the 20th Century we saw the emergence of the suburbs. This entire scheme was for the benefit of the owners of production. Now, we have a more fractured system, one determined by the individual. E
 
Given the advent of the internet and the ability to work at a distance, we have an entirely new understanding of an efficient society. This new conceptualization has altered production and allowed for a new lifestyle based on individual needs and freedoms—a personalized understanding of efficiency. Space is no longer an obstacle, nor is it a goal. A worker can make time, occupy two different places at once, and define time as opposed to living on someone else’s time. If this is the case, we may see a decline in a contingency of urbanization in the near future, that of daily commutes to work.
 
According to Raymond Hughes, chief of NASA’s global warming task force, massive urbanization, or urban sprawl, is a major contributor to global warming. 70% of green house gas emissions are generated by all the world’s cities of a million people or more. This fact tells us two things: one, it demonstrates that global warming is directly related to population density, but it also suggests that the solution is within cities themselves. Now what goes on within a city that generates so much carbon dioxide? Well, to start there is the production of goods and private transportation. Commuting to work by car is a major contributor to green house gas emission. For example, 7% of the US’s annual gas consumption is spent on looking for a parking space, which is part of the commuting process.
Commuting and the emergence of suburbs go hand in hand. A commuter lives in a suburb or in a bedroom community and travels to work in the center of the city. On the other hand, as urban sprawl creates greater and greater distances from downtown areas, businesses of all types have emerged in these periphery areas. Having these new businesses and services so close to home enables one to stay in the suburbs and perhaps walk more. Digitalization could one day limit the immediate need to travel on a daily basis. As long as an area of town is diverse enough to meet the needs of their citizens, then there would be fewer reasons to travel long distances. Ideally people would walk to the mall, the hospital or the grocery store. Hughes refers to this concept as “the frozen city”, not to suggest that people stop moving, but that they would be traveling less by car and working out of the home. Working and socializing through the internet is the key to the operations of a frozen city, thereby showing digitalization to be a major player in the reduction of green house gas emissions.
 
What additional conclusions could be made by the likely possibility that people will be spending more time on the Internet? If we take this to the extreme, production could be greatly affected by digitalization; therefore, more things consumed would be digitalized. We might be consuming digital products. One day, time on the Internet may be the new currency. The need to produce material things will decrease, thereby having a positive effect on the planet. So we can see how an increased attention to digitalization could help reduce global warming by eliminating the need to travel by car and produce material things.
 
Refer to this version of the passage to answer the questions that follow.
 
What does the author imply about video games?
Opción múltiple
A) That social groups are being formed by video games;#
B) That they will disappear with increased digitalization;#
C) That they will experience an explosion in sales;#
D) That people are forming and maintaining friendships through video games;#
E) That video games will replace our former means of socialization

D
A) This is a good answer but not the best. The author explicitly states that social groups are being formed by video games, and therefore he does not suggest it.;#
B) This is a good answer but not the best. The author never suggests that video games might disappear. However, it could be inferred that their use will increase if we consider that they have a role in socialization.;#
C) This is a good answer but not the best. The passage never mentions the sales of video games, only how they are being used for social purposes. However, it could be inferred that their use will increase if we consider that they have a role in socialization; but this would be a stretch considering the overall purpose of the passage.;#
D) This is the best answer. Since the author mentions video games just after mentioning “sharing friends” and “changing how we socialize”, the reader may infer that friendships are being formed through video games. The author uses the phrase, “social groups”; and the reader may infer that such a group is based on friendship.;#
E) This is a good answer but not the best. The passage states that video games contribute to socialization, along with other social networks, but he does not suggest the extent to which video games might come to replace them.

;#
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30 
Question 30 of 37
 
Read the following passage
Digital technology has diversified and personalized our total experience, demonstrating that we can interact with a rational world in an individualized manner. Digitalization allows the workforce to be more productive as well as to fulfill their family and social expectations. On a more urgent level, digital technology, if encouraged, may be a major player in the fight against global warming as it could help reduce green house gas emissions. B
 
A wave of digitalization has overcome our collective civilization. Digitalization affects how and where we work, interact with each other and treat our planet. The aforementioned statement is true to the extent that this global “movement” is no longer limited to an information context because communication is far from the only area affected by digitalization. Such a revolution is comparable to the widespread effects that mass production had in the 19th century when large numbers of people came into contact with one another as a direct result of the industrial revolution. C.
 
The demands generated by the industrial revolution along with its subsequent social, political and economic repercussions, in effect, determined society’s entire profile. One of the effects was the birth of urbanization when millions of people, who had been working in the agricultural sector, moved to the growing urban centers, converting small towns into densely populated urban zones. This movement began in Britain in the late 1700s and spread to other western countries. To some extent this phenomenon has continued until to now. For example, many workers from Mexico and Central America still travel to the United States hoping to find employment opportunities.
 
Since the dawn of the industrial revolution, and all throughout the 20th Century, there has been an ongoing trend of urbanization; and in 2010 it was found that half the planet’s population now resides in large urban areas for the first time in history. An example of an urban area would be the populated stretch of land from Los Angeles, California to Tijuana, Mexico. Large scale immigration may have disappeared, but there still exists massive amounts of movement within cities as people travel to work every day. Nevertheless, in the near future we might see a decrease in this trend as people are starting to realize that they can work wherever they want while remaining productive and supporting their lifestyles. A.
 
Due to the advantages of the digital age, people are not necessarily limited by the temporal-spatial restrictions of having a particular job. Nor will they need to be close to a certain market. Based on a recent survey done by United American Labor, slightly more than 4% of the U.S. workforce considers the home to be their primary place of work. This figure represents around 6 million Americans, though it doesn’t include people who are their own boss without office space and employees. 3 of the 6 million are home based businesses, providing a variety of services and products. However, this data is extremely conservative, even deceiving if we take into account that there are almost 50 million people with jobs in telecommunications or telemarketing. Any job that is telecommunications compatible is, by default, also compatible with digital communication. Nor do these figures contemplate the growing number of people who are going into work less often during the week. Nevertheless, there is a momentum here suggesting that one day people will not need to travel to work.
 
It might also be the case that our social and leisure time will not be restricted by the inconvenience of physical location and distance. Today people are using social networking to keep up with their friends and family. The established contact could be with people living in another country or just across town. Emails, texts and tweets have complemented traditional forms of social interaction. By monitoring all email communication at an undisclosed US city with a population of slightly more than 1 million people, Holland Data Services found that people maintain between 25 and 40 separate ongoing communications per day. What is important here is that these exchanges are not related to their professional duties. Such digital communications actually nurture relationships; plus, these contacts can lead to further social interactions as messages are forwarded and people share friends on Facebook. There is little doubt that digitalization is influencing our professional and leisure time, changing how we work and socialize. We even see social groups being formed across the globe through video games, collective intelligence communities, blogging, and twittering. What all of these activities have in common is that they can be done from home. If a large percentage of the population is kept at home, this should reduce production burdens and allow us to be more efficient overall, completely altering our tastes and expectations. Given this digital lifestyle, will people stop moving to the cities, traveling in general and commuting to work?
 
There is a lot of evidence supporting the thesis that digitalization is permeating our entire experience. We take this for granted and do not associate it with a long term trend. For instance, as a direct result of a digitalized workspace, parents are able to perform their professional duties at home. In addition, the practice of outsourcing is a direct consequence of digital communication and production. Here many services have been displaced overseas because information can be received and shipped with the same speed as it could if the data had been produced in the same country. This trend will continue. Throughout Europe and North America 2.7 million jobs will be exported to places like India and Vietnam by 2013. There is another phenomenon related to the above, though not as drastic. It is called “Home Sourcing”, a title conceived by Dr. Roland Murray, an urban planning professor at the University of Rochester, NY. Dr. Murray conceived home sourcing to categorize the growing number of cases where people have exchanged the office for their home as their working headquarters.
 
One can even take a vacation while still being “on the clock” as long as he or she has reliable communication with their place of work, office, clients, market, or employees. It is quite common, and has been for some time, that people communicate with their office or clients via the web. Plus, Skype, Twitter and Facebook are becoming more prevalent in terms of their use in keeping us on top of our responsibilities. How can this new era of digitalization have a positive effect on global warming? D
 
Many regions of the globe, those most active in the generation of green house gasses, are transforming from an orientation defined by manufacturing, mainly concerned with the production of tangible objects, to territories whose industries are more service oriented. Recall that industrialization demanded massive immigration which laid the foundations for urbanization. Factories needed a large quantity of workers, and these factories had a physical location that was operated by a system of efficiency characterized by cost-effective production. The labor force worked by the clock, workers punching in and out so that their productivity could be maximized for the benefit of the owners. This system is an example of scientific management whose principle idea was to improve productivity, thereby making the factory more economically efficient. This was an efficiency paradigm that required the factory workers to live in the same city and work on a fixed schedule. Not everyone, especially those with children, could afford to live close to the office or factory; therefore, in the 20th Century we saw the emergence of the suburbs. This entire scheme was for the benefit of the owners of production. Now, we have a more fractured system, one determined by the individual. E
 
Given the advent of the internet and the ability to work at a distance, we have an entirely new understanding of an efficient society. This new conceptualization has altered production and allowed for a new lifestyle based on individual needs and freedoms—a personalized understanding of efficiency. Space is no longer an obstacle, nor is it a goal. A worker can make time, occupy two different places at once, and define time as opposed to living on someone else’s time. If this is the case, we may see a decline in a contingency of urbanization in the near future, that of daily commutes to work.
 
According to Raymond Hughes, chief of NASA’s global warming task force, massive urbanization, or urban sprawl, is a major contributor to global warming. 70% of green house gas emissions are generated by all the world’s cities of a million people or more. This fact tells us two things: one, it demonstrates that global warming is directly related to population density, but it also suggests that the solution is within cities themselves. Now what goes on within a city that generates so much carbon dioxide? Well, to start there is the production of goods and private transportation. Commuting to work by car is a major contributor to green house gas emission. For example, 7% of the US’s annual gas consumption is spent on looking for a parking space, which is part of the commuting process.
 
Commuting and the emergence of suburbs go hand in hand. A commuter lives in a suburb or in a bedroom community and travels to work in the center of the city. On the other hand, as urban sprawl creates greater and greater distances from downtown areas, businesses of all types have emerged in these periphery areas. Having these new businesses and services so close to home enables one to stay in the suburbs and perhaps walk more. Digitalization could one day limit the immediate need to travel on a daily basis. As long as an area of town is diverse enough to meet the needs of their citizens, then there would be fewer reasons to travel long distances. Ideally people would walk to the mall, the hospital or the grocery store. Hughes refers to this concept as “the frozen city”, not to suggest that people stop moving, but that they would be traveling less by car and working out of the home. Working and socializing through the internet is the key to the operations of a frozen city, thereby showing digitalization to be a major player in the reduction of green house gas emissions.
 
What additional conclusions could be made by the likely possibility that people will be spending more time on the Internet? If we take this to the extreme, production could be greatly affected by digitalization; therefore, more things consumed would be digitalized. We might be consuming digital products. One day, time on the Internet may be the new currency. The need to produce material things will decrease, thereby having a positive effect on the planet. So we can see how an increased attention to digitalization could help reduce global warming by eliminating the need to travel by car and produce material things.
 
Refer to this version of the passage to answer the questions that follow.
 
Go back to the passage and look for the letters A, B, C, D and E in bold that indicate where the following sentence could be added.

So, for purposes of this passage the issue is not so much immigration as it is commuting.

Where would the sentence most appropriately fit into the passage?
Opción múltiple
A) A ;#
B) B ;#
C) C ;#
D) D ;#
E) E

E
A) This is the best answer. In the paragraph that would conclude with the statement in question, the author mentions commuting. Plus, the use of the word “so” suggests a form of conclusion which is appropriate since the author had been talking about immigration as a means meant to lead the reader to the issue of commuting.;#
B) This answer is wrong. If the reader were to insert the statement at the end of the first paragraph, it would be taken as a transition to the next paragraph; however, there is no mention of immigration in the first paragraph and no mention of commuting in the second.;#
C) In the paragraphs that would straddle this statement, the author only talks about immigration and not commuting. “So” suggests a conclusion or a possible shift in the current of the passage. In addition, since the surrounding paragraphs talk only about immigration, there is little to suggest that a conclusion has been reached or that the current has shifted. This answer is incorrect.;#
D) This answer is wrong. Placing the statement here would not serve as a proper transition from one paragraph to another.;#
E) This answer is wrong. Placing the statement here would not serve as a proper transition from one paragraph to another.;#
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