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1 
Question 1 of 22
 
Listen to a lecture and take notes on the main points about it.
You will then use your notes to answer some questions after the lecture
 
[AUDIO1]
[AUDIO2]
What is the topic of the lecture?
1
0
Opción múltiple
A) Why humans prefer some animals instead of others;#
B) Why some animals can be domesticated while others cannot;#
C) Why people domesticate animals;#
D) Why humans like dogs over wolves;#
E) Why deer are not domestic animals
B
A) The speaker mentions that some characteristics have made humans choose some animals over others for the exclusive purpose of domestication, but the word “prefer” is very general and more related to emotional rather than practical relationships, so this answer is not the best. ;#
B) This is the best answer! The speaker mentions that the existence of some characteristics is what makes it easier to domesticate some animals than others, and then he provides two specific examples of this. ;#
C) The speaker mentions some of the uses of domestic animals to contextualize the topic but does not explain why humans domesticate animals.
D) Similar to the word “prefer” in answer “A”, the word “like” is very general. In addition, the difference between dogs and wolves is only one of the two examples used by the speaker to support his argument, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) The reason why deer cannot be easily domesticated is only one of the examples that the speaker uses to support the topic, so this answer is wrong.;#
 
/Audios/TOEFLWriting/MP3/2.%20Section%201%20Lecture%20TOEFL%20Take%202.mp3,/Audios/TOEFLWriting/MP3/3.%20Section%201%20Instructions%20After%20the%20lecture%20TOEFL.mp3
2 
Question 2 of 22
 
 
Why is it easy to domesticate dogs?
1
1
Opción múltiple
A) They are interdependent with wolves.;#
B) They can be trained while wolves cannot.;#
C) They protect their cubs and form groups.;#
D) They need to follow a leader.;#
E) They are independent animals.
D
A) The speaker mentions that dogs are interdependent with a leader but not with wolves, so this answer is wrong. ;#
B) The speaker describes the reasons why dogs can be easily domesticated but does not state that wolves cannot be trained, so this answer is not the best.;#
C) The speaker does not discuss either characteristic, so this answer is completely wrong.;#
D) This is the best answer! According to the speaker, what makes dogs easy to domesticate is their need for a leader.;#
E) The speaker emphasizes that dogs need to follow a leader, so this answer is completely wrong.
;#
​.
3 
Question 3 of 22
 
 
Why is it difficult to domesticate deer?
1
2
Opción múltiple
A) They follow a leader. ;#
B) They cannot be ridden.;#
C) They are very protective of their own territory.;#
D) They are very violent.;#
E) They cannot live in constrained areas.
C
A) The speaker indicates that deer follow a leader, but does not state this is the reason why they cannot be domesticated, so this answer is not the best. ;#
B) The speaker does not indicate whether deer can be ridden or not, so this answer is completely wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! The speaker mentions that deer do not let other groups enter their area, and this causes group leaders to fight for the possession of a single territory.;#
D) The speaker mentions that male deer group leaders fight for the possession of an area, but does not emphasize that they are violent animals, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The speaker does not indicate whether deer can be confined in a reduced area or not, so this answer is wrong.
;#
​.
4 
Question 4 of 22
 
 
According to the speaker, what problems would humans find if they tried to domesticate deer?
1
3
Opción múltiple
A) They would have to train them not to fight. ;#
B) They would have to train them to live in stables.;#
C) The deer would try to escape all the time.;#
D) They would only be able to domesticate isolated groups.;#
E) Deer would never accept dogs.
D
A) The speaker concludes the explanation on why deer are difficult to domesticate by mentioning that domesticating a group leader and its group will not mean the immediate domestication of another group living in the same area, so this answer is not the best. ;#
B) The speaker does not discuss the life conditions of domestic animals, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The speaker does not mention whether domestic deer would try to escape, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) This is the best answer! The speaker mentions that domesticating a deer group leader is not a guarantee to domesticate another group living in the same region.;#
E) The relationship between dogs and deer is never mentioned, so this answer is wrong.
;#
​.
5 
Question 5 of 22
 
 
Which of the following outlines best summarizes the speaker’s speech?
1
4
Opción múltiple
A) Most people do not know why some specific animals have been  
  domesticated instead of others.
. The existence of some characteristics makes it easier to domesticate 
  some animals. 
. Dogs can be domesticated because they are loyal and follow a master.
. Wolves are difficult to domesticate because they are independent.
. Horses can be domesticated because they are social animals that
  accept others in their group, and because they can follow a single
  leader for a big group.
. Deer form small groups and do not accept other groups to enter their
  area.
. Whenever thinking about domestication, reflect upon the features that
  make a species easier to domesticate than other related ones.
;#
B) People talk about domestication without reflecting upon it.
. People use various domestic species for different purposes.
. Dogs can be domesticated while wolves cannot.
. Wolves are difficult to domesticate because they are independent.
. Horses are domesticated because they can be ridden.
. Deer form small groups and do not accept other groups to enter their
  area.
. Whenever choosing a domestic animal, reflect upon the features that
  make it suitable for a house.
;#
C) Most people do not know what domestic animals are mainly used for.
. Humans have used domestic animals since humans became sedentary. 
. Dogs can be domesticated in an easy way.
. Wolves are difficult to domesticate.
. Horses can be domesticated.
. Deer form small groups.
. Before you choose a pet, check if it is from a domestic family.
;#
D) We generally ignore the reasons why some animals have been
  domesticated.
. The existence of some characteristics makes it easier to domesticate 
  some animals. 
. Dogs can be domesticated because they follow a master.
. Wolves are difficult to domesticate because they are interdependent.
. Horses can be domesticated because they are social animals that
  follow a single leader for a big group.
. Deer do not accept other groups to enter their area.
. Whenever thinking about domestication, reflect upon the features that
  make a species easier to domesticate than other related ones.
;#
E) We use domestic animals as pets and mainly on farms.
. Animals can be domesticated according to their characteristics. 
. Dogs can be domesticated because they are loyal and follow a master.
. Wolves are difficult to domesticate because they form packs.
. Horses can be domesticated because they are social animals that
  accept others in their group, and because they can follow a single
  leader for a big group.
. Deer allow other groups to enter their area.
. After this speech, you have a wider knowledge about domestication.
A
A) This is the best answer! The speaker first mentions that most people do not reflect upon the characteristics that make some species suitable for domestication. Then he describes the characteristics that make dogs and horses easy to domesticate in comparison with wolves and deer respectively. Finally, he concludes inviting his audience to reflect upon what characteristics simplify the domestication of specific species for over other related ones. ;#
B) The main idea which is that some characteristics make it easier to domesticate some species over others is missing in this outline. In addition, the idea that people do not reflect on domestication is not mentioned by the speaker, and neither are the ones about horses being suitable for ridding or choosing a domestic animal, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The main idea which is that some characteristics make it easier to domesticate some species over others is missing in this outline. Besides, the speaker does not mention that people ignore the uses of domestic animals. Additionally, not all the key characteristics related to the domestication of the four species mentioned are listed. Finally, the speaker does not mention the selection of a pet, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The speaker does not indicate that wolves are “interdependent”, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The speaker does not mention the use of domestic animals as a key idea in his argument. Moreover, the sentence “Animals can be domesticated according to their characteristics” implies that different animals have different degrees of domestication, about which the speaker does not discuss that idea. Besides, the idea that wolves can form packs is mentioned by the speaker only as a tendency but not as a fact as the sentence in this summary seems to indicate. Finally, the speaker does not state that the audience has an ampler knowledge after having listened to his speech, so this answer is wrong.
;#
​.
6 
Question 6 of 22
Following passage and take notes on the main points about it.
Read the following text.
 
You will then use your notes to answer some questions after the text.
You will have 5 minutes to read the text, take notes, and answer the questions that follow
 

It was demonstrated by Darwin, and has been accepted since then, that primates are the closest relations to humans in the animal kingdom. Nevertheless, very few attempts have been made to domesticate primates others than using them for entertainment and space exploration. There are some specific reasons related to behavior and physical characteristics behind this absence of primates in our list of domesticated animals. To begin with primates exhibit some of the most marked features of character that identify humans. They experience deep affection and sense of belonging to a group. These two characteristics would be just enough to domesticate and keep them as affectionate pets that would never attempt to leave home were it not for the fact that they also share other human emotions like stubbornness and jealousy. These two other characteristics would be enough to have at home the same quarrels that are usually experienced among family members, but this time the pet would also be included in them. It is clear that pets like cats and dogs also show these kinds of emotions that make them react in ways that may not be the desirable ones inside a house, but these two kinds of domestic animals have limited ways to react in a rebellious manner to show that they disagree with the way they are being treated. Apart from scratching a piece of furniture or urinating on a forbidden area of the house, there are not many options a dog or a cat can make use of to show disagreement. Biting may be their last resource, but research done in laboratory has demonstrated that the height and biped position of man inspires immediate submission when faced by a four-legged animal that has been removed from a wild context.

Contrary to the previous, it has also been demonstrated that, even out of a wild scenario, apes tend to see humans as their equals once they are treated as part of a human group. This would increase the possibilities of suffering a severe attack by a primate pet which is dissatisfied with the portion of food it received or with the order in which he is served in the house. Coming to this point it is not only necessary to consider the behavior, but also the physical shared characteristics we have with primates. They have strong arm muscles that can cause severe fractures, their hands can manipulate objects that a cat or dog may fail to grasp with its mouth, and their teeth, though not sharp, are harder and longer than ours. As a result, an angry ape pet would be able not only to steal and hide personal objects to show dissatisfaction, but may go as far as hurting its owner in a severe way that may leave permanent consequences.

When space exploration developers decided to use chimpanzees over dogs, it was precisely because, although both have similar weight, the former were also able to operate human designed tools, buttons and knobs. Additionally, they could follow complex instructions and keep their concentration for long periods as we do. However, as the preceding lines have mentioned, it is precisely their extreme similarities to humans in behavior and body structure that make apes not the ideal pets to have as company in a peaceful home.
What is the topic of the passage?
2
0
Opción múltiple
A) Primates share many characteristics with humans.;#
B) Primates behave like humans once they are inserted in a human context.;#
C) Primates could kill humans if they wanted to.;#
D) Primates have better ways to attack humans than dogs and cats do.;#
E) Primates have specific characteristics that prevent humans from domesticating and using them as pets.
E
A) The features shared by men and apes are only mentioned as a reason for not having domesticated the latter, so this answer is wrong. ;#
B) The author mentions that the behavior of primates is very similar in a  wild or domestic scenario; in addition, their behavior is only mentioned as a reason to support the main idea: that apes have characteristics that prevent us from domesticating them, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The author mentions the possibility that apes could cause severe injuries in a human, but just under certain circumstances, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The author mentions this only as an example to support the topic: that we do not keep primates as domestic animals because of certain characteristics they possess, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) This is the best answer! The author mentions that some of their physical and behavioral characteristics keep us from adopting primates as pets.
;#

​.
7 
Question 7 of 22
 
Which characteristics does the writer mention would make us think of domesticating apes?
2
6
Opción múltiple
A) attachment and closeness ;#
B) tenderness and correspondence;#
C) effectiveness and longing;#
D) affection and grouping;#
E) love and friendship
A
A) This is the best answer! The text indicates that “deep affection and sense of belonging to a group” are the characteristics that would make us domesticate apes. ;#
B) The text indicates that “deep affection and sense of belonging to a group” are the characteristics that would make us domesticate apes, but the word “correspondence” is related in meaning to agreement and similarity, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The text indicates that “deep affection and sense of belonging to a group” are the characteristics that would make us domesticate apes, but the words “effectiveness” and “longing” are not related to that idea, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The text indicates that “deep affection and sense of belonging to a group” are the characteristics that would make us domesticate apes, but the word “grouping” means creating a group, but not necessarily feeling an attachment to it, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The text indicates that “deep affection and sense of belonging to a group” are the characteristics that would make us domesticate apes, but the word “love” is too general and not necessarily related to the idea of feeling part of a group, so this answer is wrong.
;#
​.
8 
Question 8 of 22
 
According to the writer, how does a cat or dog usually react to show discontent?
2
7
Opción múltiple
A) by biting and urinating ;#
B) by quarreling and escaping;#
C) by being stubborn and jealous;#
D) by peeing and damaging property;#
E) by attacking its owner
D
A) The text points out that quadrupeds like cats and dogs will very unlikely attack a human being, so this answer is not the best. ;#
B) The text does not mention escaping as an answer from a dissatisfied pet, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The text mentions this kind of behavior as the causes, not the results, of reacting with discontent, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) This is the best answer! The text mentions that cats and dogs commonly show discontent by urinating and scratching furniture.;#
E) The text points out that four-legged animals are rather unlikely to attack a human being, so this answer is not the best.
;#
​.
9 
Question 9 of 22
 
What physical characteristics of primates would make them able to hurt a human being?
2
8
Opción múltiple
A) their intelligence and heavy arms ;#
B) their stubbornness and jealousy;#
C) their strong limbs and teeth;#
D) their wildness and manipulation;#
E) their arms and hands
C
A) The author does not directly mention primate intelligence at any time, so this answer is wrong. ;#
B) These two behavioral features are mentioned as causes, not results, of a primate aggressive reaction, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! The author mentions that the primates could use their strong arms and hard teeth to attack humans.;#
D) The wildness of apes is not mentioned as a physical characteristic, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The author mentions the hands of apes to discuss their ability to manipulate objects, but not to indicate that they cold be used to hurt humans, so this answer is not the best.
;#
​.
10 
Question 10 of 22
 
What paradox does the author imply at the end of the text?
2
9
Opción múltiple
A) Apes are excellent pets only for space exploration. ;#
B) Apes were considered for space exploration and dogs remained pets.;#
C) Apes can easily replace us in space explorations.;#
D) Apes can operate machinery much better than other pets.;#
E) Apes are so similar to humans that they cannot make ideal pets.
E
A) The word “pet” is related to an animal home companion, not to space exploration, so this answer is wrong. ;#
B) The author does not indicate any selection as to which species would remain as pets if not chosen for space exploration. Besides, such a decision does not imply a paradox inside the context of the text, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The author never mentions the use of chimpanzees as a replacement of human beings, nor does he suggest it would mean a paradox, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) Although the author indicates that their ability to manipulate objects was one of the characteristics that made chimpanzees space explorers, this idea does not imply any paradox according to the text, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) This is the best answer! After discussing the similarities with humans that made us chose chimpanzees for space exploration, the author concludes by mentioning that “it is precisely their extreme similarities to humans in behavior and body structure that make apes not the ideal pets to have as company in a peaceful home.”
;#

​.
11 
Question 11 of 22
 
Which summary best outlines the preceding text?
2
10
Opción múltiple
A) . Some behavioral and physical characteristics prevent us from
  domesticating apes. 
. Primates and humans share stubbornness and jealousy.
. Cats and dogs are dangerous for humans.
. Apes could attack humans because they do not fear us, and because
  they have the physical requirements to do it.
. Although their physical abilities and mind allowed us to use
  chimpanzees to explore space, their similarities to us do not make
  them ideal pets.
;#
B) . Some of their behavioral and physical characteristics prevent us from
  domesticating apes.
. Primates and humans share some positive and negative character
  features.
. Cats and dogs also share positive and negative characteristics with
  humans, but their negative behavior is not a dangerous one for
  humans.
. Apes could attack humans because they do not fear us, and because
  they have the physical requirements to do it.
. Although their physical abilities and mind allowed us to use
  chimpanzees to explore space, their similarities to us do not make
  them ideal pets.
;#
C) . Darwin suggested the domestication of apes.
. Primates and humans share character features.
. Cats and dogs also share characteristics with humans.
. Apes do not fear us, and because.
. Chimpanzees explored space with good results.
;#
D) . Some behavioral and physical characteristics prevent us from
  domesticating apes.
. Primates and humans share some positive and negative character
  features.
. Cats and dogs also share positive and negative features with
  humans, but their negative behavior is not a dangerous one for
  humans.
. Primates could hurt humans because they do not fear us.
. Although their physical abilities and mind allowed us to use
  chimpanzees to explore space, their similarities to us make
  them ideal pets.
;#
E) . Not many attempts have been made to domesticate apes.
. Apes and humans are very similar.
. Cats and dogs are also similar to humans.
. Apes could attack humans because they do not fear us, and because
  they have the physical requirements to do it.
. Although their physical abilities and mind allowed us to use
  chimpanzees to explore space, their similarities do not make them ideal
  pets.
B
A) This answer does not point out whose characteristics prevent the domestication of apes. Besides, according to the text, humans and primates not only share “stubbornness and jealousy”. Finally, cats and dogs are not mentioned as “dangerous to humans”, so this answer is not the best. ;#
B) This answer is the best! To set his topic, the author mentions that some of their characteristics keep us from domesticating apes; the rest of the text is a description of the characteristics that make dogs and cats appropriate pets, plus the ones that would not make primates be the same. In the end, the author concludes that, although we are very similar to apes, these similarities are the reasons for not making them our pets.;#
C) Darwin suggested the domestication of apes.
. Primates and humans share character features.
. Cats and dogs also share characteristics with humans.
. Apes do not fear us, and because.
. Chimpanzees explored space with good results. To begin with, the text does not discuss that Darwin proposed the domestication of apes, so, although there are other mistakes in this answer, this simple fact makes it completely wrong.;#
D) This answer does not point out whose characteristics prevent the domestication of apes. Besides, the last sentence in this summary indicates that apes would make ideal pets, but the text indicates completely the opposite, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) The idea that “Not many attempts have been made to domesticate apes” is not the main one in the introductory paragraph. Moreover, the second and third sentences in this summary are correct, but very general, so this answer is not the best.
;#
​.
12 
Question 12 of 22
 
Instructions: 

The TOEFL iBT writing section asks for the production of two essays: integrated essay (150-225 words / 20 mins.) and independent essay (300 words / 30 mins.) 

Note taking is not the only skill you need to complete both tasks with satisfactory results. 
 
It is also important that you show a good understanding of verb tenses, word choice, sentence structuring, and use of linking words when writing your arguments. 

You will now be given a series of incomplete sentences. In each of them, choose the best answer to fill in the blank.
The Southern states decided for secession because _________
3
11
Opción múltiple
A) the increasing pressure from the Union to free their slaves. ;#
B) no guarantees given by the Union to keep their slaves. ;#
C) the slaves needing freedom. ;#
D) the Union pressed them to free his slaves. ;#
E) of the increasing pressure from the Union to free their slaves.
E
A) The word “because” is an adverb connector; therefore, a complete sentence (subject and verb structure) is needed after it, but there is no verb in this answer, so it is wrong. ;#
B) The word “because” is an adverb connector; therefore, a complete sentence (subject and verb structure) is needed after it, but there is no verb in this answer, so it is wrong. ;#
C) The word “because” is an adverb connector; therefore, a complete sentence (subject and verb structure) is needed after it, but there is no verb in this answer, so it is wrong. ;#
D) The word “his” is singular, but must be plural since it refers to “them” which refers to “Southern states”, so this answer is wrong. ;#
E) This is the best answer! The word “because” is an adverb connector which marks the beginning of a subordinate clause; therefore, a complete sentence (subject and verb structure) is needed after it.
;#

​.
13 
Question 13 of 22

 
There are some facts that need to be considered before deciding to adopt a pet. _________, one must consider the space available at home.
3
12
Opción múltiple
A) Consequently;#
B) Because ;#
C) To begin ;#
D) First of all ;#
E) After
D
A) The conjunctive adverb “Consequently” is used to explain a result, but that is not the relation between the two sentences, so this answer is wrong.. ;#
B) The adverb connector “because” cannot be used to connect ideas separated by a period. In addition, its meaning is not the appropriate one in the context given, so this answer is wrong.. ;#
C) “To begin with” is a good way to start a series of reasons or examples as this seems to be the case here; however, the answer only reads “to begin” without the preposition “with”, so this answer is wrong.. ;#
D) This is the best answer! The first sentence explains that some facts have to be considered, and the conjunctive adverb  “First of all” is used to start an argument formed by related reasons and examples.  ;#
E) The adverb connector “after” cannot be used to connect ideas separated by a period. In addition, its meaning is not the appropriate one in the context given, so this answer is wrong.
;#
​.
14 
Question 14 of 22

 
__________ they could even realize it, the team members had spent the entire budget for the project.
3
13
Opción múltiple
A) When ;#
B) After;#
C) At;#
D) Previously;#
E) Before
E
A) The verb tenses used in these two sentences (“realized” and “had spent”) indicate that the actions are not simultaneous, but the adverb connector “When” implies simultaneity, so this answer is wrong. ;#
B) The verb tenses used in the sentences indicate that the team members first “had spent” the budget, and later were able to realize it, so this answer is completely wrong.;#
C) The word “At” is a preposition, so it cannot be used to connect two sentences as it is required in this question, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) The word “Previously” is an adverb, so it cannot be used to connect two sentences as it is required in this question, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) This is the best answer! The two sentences need an adverb connector to join them, and the two verb tenses used in the sentences indicate that the members first “had spent” and later “could even realize”.
;#

​.
15 
Question 15 of 22

 
We had had a great time at the beach. _________, we decided to go for some snacks.
3
14
Opción múltiple
A) After ;#
B) Before;#
C) Then;#
D) Meanwhile;#
E) So
C
A) Two sentences separated by a period like these can be connected with a conjunctive adverb, but “after” is an adverb connector, and this type of linking word cannot be used with sentences separated by a period. If we do that, the second sentence would become a fragmented one, so this answer is wrong. ;#
B) Two sentences separated by a period like these can be connected with a conjunctive adverb, but “before” is an adverb connector, and this type of linking word cannot be used with sentences separated by a period. If we do that, the second sentence would become a fragmented one, so this answer is wrong. ;#
C) This is the best answer! Two sentences separated by a period like these can be connected with a conjunctive adverb, and “Then” is precisely that kind of linking word. ;#
D) Two sentences separated by a period like these can be connected with a conjunctive adverb. “Meanwhile” is such kind of word, but its meaning does not correspond to the relationship between the two sentences because the verbs “had had” and “decided” indicate the two actions are not simultaneous, so this answer is wrong ;#
E) Two sentences separated by a period like these can be connected with a conjunctive adverb, but “so” is a coordinate conjunction, and this type of linking word cannot be used with sentences separated by periods, so this answer is wrong.
;#

​.
16 
Question 16 of 22

 
The results presented in the report are not accurate at all. __________, they are the product of very carefully detailed and well conducted research.
3
15
Opción múltiple
A) Nevertheless ;#
B) As an example;#
C) Besides;#
D) Additionally;#
E) In fact
A
A) This is the best answer! Two sentences separated by a period can be connected by a conjunctive adverb. The five options are conjunctive adverbs, but the specific relationship between the two sentences indicates contrast, and that is precisely the meaning conveyed by “Nevertheless”. ;#
B) Two sentences separated by a period can be connected by a conjunctive adverb. The five options are conjunctive adverbs, but the relationship between the two sentences indicates contrast, and “As an example” is used to exemplify, so this answer is wrong. ;#
C) Two sentences separated by a period can be connected by a conjunctive adverb. The five options are conjunctive adverbs, but the relationship between the two sentences indicates contrast, and “Besides” is used to add extra information or details, so this answer is wrong. ;#
D) Two sentences separated by a period can be connected by a conjunctive adverb. The five options are conjunctive adverbs, but the relationship between the two sentences indicates contrast, and “Additionally” is used to add extra information or details, so this answer is wrong. ;#
E) Two sentences separated by a period can be connected by a conjunctive adverb. The five options are conjunctive adverbs, but the relationship between the two sentences indicates contrast, and “In fact” is used to emphasize, so this answer is wrong. ;#
​.
17 
Question 17 of 22

 
The legitimacy of their discovery is still under debate _________ they have not been able to reproduce it in other laboratories.
3
16
Opción múltiple
A) although ;#
B) despite
C) inasmuch as
D) due to
E) that
C
A) Two sentences can be connected by an adverb connector, and “although” is that kind of word. However, its meaning connects contrasting ideas, and that is not the relationship between these two sentences, so this answer is wrong.;#
B) There are two sentences that need to be connected. “despite” is a preposition, and prepositions do not connect sentences, so this answer is wrong.;#
C) This is the best answer! Two sentences can be connected by an adverb connector like “inasmuch as”. Additionally, this linking word connects cause and result, which is the relationship between the two sentences.;#
D) There are two sentences that need to be connected. “due to” is a preposition, and prepositions do not connect sentences, so this answer is wrong.;#
E) There are two sentences that need to be connected. “that” is a linking word, but it does not convey the idea of cause and effect that expresses the relationship between the two sentences, so this answer is wrong.;#
​.
18 
Question 18 of 22

 
It is a commonly observed phenomenon that those employees who hold two simultaneous jobs often __________ giving bad results in both of them.
3
17
Opción múltiple
A) end up ;#
B) come across ;#
C) show up ;#
D) pick out ;#
E) turn in
A
A) This is the best answer! The idea expressed in this sentence is that the result of having two simultaneous jobs is to finish with bad results in both of them. The phrasal verb “end up” means “to finish”.;#
B) The idea expressed in this sentence is that the result of having two simultaneous jobs is to finish with bad results in both of them. The phrasal verb “come across” means “to find”, so this answer is not the best.;#
C) The idea expressed in this sentence is that the result of having two simultaneous jobs is to finish with bad results in both of them. The phrasal verb “show up” means “to arrive or become visible”, so this answer is not the best.;#
D) The idea expressed in this sentence is that the result of having two simultaneous jobs is to finish with bad results in both of them. The phrasal verb “pick out” means “to choose”, so this answer is not the best.;#
E) The idea expressed in this sentence is that the result of having two simultaneous jobs is to finish with bad results in both of them. The phrasal verb “turn in” means “to deliver”, so this answer is not the best.;#
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Question 19 of 22

 
In the story, the prince decided to leave the city after ________
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Opción múltiple
A) having discovered the secrets of his parents.;#
B) he has discovered the truth about his past.;#
C) he finded out the real meaning of his heritage.;#
D) having been producing his true origins.;#
E) had found out who his parents were.
A
A) This is the best answer! The idea that the prince “had discovered the secrets” has been reduced to “having discovered”.;#
B) The sentence narrates related events in a story, and there is no time indicator that justifies switching from past (“decided”) to present (“has discovered”), so this answer is wrong.;#
C) The past form “finded” does not exist. The correct form is “found”, so this answer is wrong.;#
D) This answer indicates that the prince “had been producing his true origins”. It does not make logical sense to read that someone “produces” his own origins, so this answer is not the best because of wrong word choice.;#
E) This option has a verb but no subject. Every single verb must have a subject in correct English, so this answer is completely wrong.
;#
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Question 20 of 22

 
Although the president gave a convincing speech, many people still wondered why __________.
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Opción múltiple
A) had he not told the truth before.;#
B) he had not chosen the blame for the recent events.;#
C) he did not want to resign.;#
D) didn’t he look to remain in charge of the country.;#
E) does he still insists he is the best option to lead the country.

C
A) The inverted order of verb plus subject in this answer corresponds to the form used after question words, like “why”, in interrogative sentences, but this sentence is not a question, so this answer is completely wrong.;#
B) This sentence has the normal order of subject plus verb that is needed in declarative sentences, but the verb “chosen” does not make sense used in combination with the word “blame”, so this answer is wrong because of word choice.;#
C) This is the best answer! It has the normal order of subject plus verb that is required in a declarative sentence.;#
D) The inverted order of verb plus subject in this answer corresponds to the form used after question words, like “why”, in interrogative sentences, but this sentence is not a question, so this answer is completely wrong.;#
E) The inverted order of verb plus subject in this answer corresponds to the form used after question words, like “why”, in interrogative sentences, but this sentence is not a question. In addition, and even if this sentence were a question, the verb “insist” has to be in simple form because of the use of the auxiliary “does”, so this answer is completely wrong.
;#
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Question 21 of 22
Read the following passage
Then, in the form of a well structured essay, construct a counter argument using examples from your own experience, knowledge or information that is considered to be common knowledge.
 
Digital technology has diversified and personalized our total experience, demonstrating that we can interact with a rational world in an individualized manner. Digitalization allows the workforce to be more productive as well as to fulfill their family and social expectations. On a more urgent level, digital technology, if encouraged, may be a major player in the fight against global warming as it could help reduce green house gas emissions.

A wave of digitalization has overcome our collective civilization. Digitalization affects how and where we work, interact with each other and treat our planet. The aforementioned statement is true to the extent that this global “movement” is no longer limited to an information context because communication is far from the only area affected by digitalization. Such a revolution is comparable to the widespread effects that mass production had in the 19th century when large numbers of people came into contact with one another as a direct result of the industrial revolution.
The demands generated by the industrial revolution along with its subsequent social, political and economic repercussions, in effect, determined society’s entire profile. One of the effects was the birth of urbanization when millions of people, who had been working in the agricultural sector, moved to the growing urban centers, converting small towns into densely populated urban zones. This movement began in Britain in the late 1700s and spread to other western countries. To some extent this phenomenon has continued until to now. For example, many workers from Mexico and Central America still travel to the United States hoping to find employment opportunities.

Since the dawn of the industrial revolution, and all throughout the 20th Century, there has been an ongoing trend of urbanization; and in 2010 it was found that half the planet’s population now resides in large urban areas for the first time in history. An example of an urban area would be the populated stretch of land from Los Angeles, California to Tijuana, Mexico. Large scale immigration may have disappeared, but there still exists massive amounts of movement within cities as people travel to work every day. Nevertheless, in the near future we might see a decrease in this trend as people are starting to realize that they can work wherever they want while remaining productive and supporting their lifestyles.

Due to the advantages of the digital age, people are not necessarily limited by the temporal-spatial restrictions of having a particular job, nor will they need to be close to a certain market. Based on a recent survey done by United American Labor, slightly more than 4% of the U.S. workforce considers the home to be their primary place of work. This figure represents around 6 million Americans, though it doesn’t include people who are their own boss without office space and employees. 3 of the 6 million are home based businesses, providing a variety of services and products. However, this data is extremely conservative, even deceiving if we take into account that there are almost 50 million people with jobs in telecommunications or telemarketing. Any job that is telecommunications compatible is, by default, also compatible with digital communication, nor do these figures contemplate the growing number of people who are going into work less often during the week. Nevertheless, there is a momentum here suggesting that one day people will not need to travel to work. It might also be the case that our social and leisure time will not be restricted by the inconvenience of physical location and distance. Today, people are using social networking to keep up with their friends and family. The established contact could be with people living in another country or just across town. Emails, texts and tweets have complimented traditional forms of social interaction. By monitoring all email communication at an undisclosed US city with a population of slightly more than 1 million people, Holland Data Services found that people maintain between 25 and 40 separate ongoing communications per day. What is important here is that these exchanges are not related to their professional duties. Such digital communications actually nurture relationships; plus, these contacts can lead to further social interactions as messages are forwarded and people share friends on Facebook. There is little doubt that digitalization is influencing our professional and leisure time, changing how we work and slocialize. We even see social groups being formed across the globe through video games, collective intelligence communities, blogging, and twittering. What all of these activities have in common is that they can be done from home. If a large percentage of the population is kept at home, this should reduce production burdens and allow us to be more efficient overall, completely altering our tastes and expectations. Given this digital lifestyle, will people stop moving to the cities, traveling in general and commuting to work?

There is a lot of evidence supporting the thesis that digitalization is permeating our entire experience. We take this for granted and do not associate it with a long term trend. For instance, as a direct result of a digitalized workspace, parents are able to perform their professional duties at home. In addition, the practice of outsourcing is a direct consequence of digital communication and production. Here many services have been displaced overseas because information can be received and shipped with the same speed as it could if the data had been produced in the same country. This trend will continue. Throughout Europe and North America 2.7 million jobs will be exported to places like India and Vietnam by 2013. There is another phenomenon related to the above, though not as drastic. It is called “Home Sourcing”, a title conceived by Dr. Roland Murray, an urban planning professor at the University of Rochester, NY. Dr. Murray conceived home sourcing to categorize the growing number of cases where people have exchanged the office for their home as their working headquarters.
One can even take a vacation while still being “on the clock” as long as he or she has reliable communication with their place of work, office, clients, market, or employees. It is quite common, and has been for some time, that people communicate with their office or clients via the web. Plus, Skype, Twitter and Facebook are becoming more prevalent in terms of their use in keeping us on top of our responsibilities. How can this new era of digitalization have a positive effect on global warming?

Many regions of the globe, those most active in the generation of green house gasses, are transforming from an orientation defined by manufacturing, mainly concerned with the production of tangible objects, to territories whose industries are more service oriented. Recall that industrialization demanded massive immigration which laid the foundations for urbanization. Factories needed a large quantity of workers, and these factories had a physical location that was operated by a system of efficiency characterized by cost-effective production. The labor force worked by the clock, workers punching in and out so that their productivity could be maximized for the benefit of the owners. This system is an example of scientific management whose principle idea was to improve productivity, thereby making the factory more economically efficient. This was an efficiency paradigm that required the factory workers to live in the same city and work on a fixed schedule. Not everyone, especially those with children, could afford to live close to the office or factory; therefore, in the 20th Century we saw the emergence of the suburbs. This entire scheme was for the benefit of the owners of production. Now, we have a more fractured system, one determined by the individual.

Given the advent of the internet and the ability to work at a distance, we have an entirely new understanding of an efficient society. This new conceptualization has altered production and allowed for a new lifestyle based on individual needs and freedoms—a personalized understanding of efficiency. Space is no longer an obstacle, nor is it a goal. A worker can make time, occupy two different places at once, and define time as opposed to living on someone else’s time. If this is the case, we may see a decline in a contingency of urbanization in the near future, that of daily commutes to work.
According to Raymond Hughes, chief of NASA’s global warming task force, massive urbanization, or urban sprawl, is a major contributor to global warming. 70% of green house gas emissions are generated by all the world’s cities of a million people or more. This fact tells us two things: one, it demonstrates that global warming is directly related to population density, but it also suggests that the solution is within cities themselves. Now what goes on within a city that generates so much carbon dioxide? Well, to start there is the production of goods and private transportation. Commuting to work by car is a major contributor to green house gas emission. For example, 7% of the US’s annual gas consumption is spent on looking for a parking space, which is part of the commuting process.
Commuting and the emergence of suburbs go hand in hand. A commuter lives in a suburb or in a bedroom community and travels to work in the center of the city. On the other hand, as urban sprawl creates greater and greater distances from downtown areas, businesses of all types have emerged in these periphery areas. Having these new businesses and services so close to home enables one to stay in the suburbs and perhaps walk more. Digitalization could one day limit the immediate need to travel on a daily basis. As long as an area of town is diverse enough to meet the needs of their citizens, then there would be fewer reasons to travel long distances. Ideally people would walk to the mall, the hospital or the grocery store. Hughes refers to this concept as “the frozen city”, not to suggest that people stop moving, but that they would be traveling less by car and working out of the home. Working and socializing through the internet is the key to the operations of a frozen city, thereby showing digitalization to be a major player in the reduction of green house gas emissions.
What additional conclusions could be made by the likely possibility that people will be spending more time on the Internet? If we take this to the extreme, production could be greatly affected by digitalization; therefore, more things consumed would be digitalized. We might be consuming digital products. One day, time on the Internet may be the new currency. The need to produce material things will decrease, thereby having a positive effect on the planet. So we can see how an increased attention to digitalization could help reduce global warming by eliminating the need to travel by car and produce material things.

Take 30 minutes to complete section 1. For this section, you will construct an argumentative essay of 8-10 paragraphs based on the previous passage. Basically, your essay will be a counter argument to the argument(s) within the passage. To do this, you will use examples from your own experience, knowledge or information that is considered to be common knowledge.
Please, make sure that your essay contains the following components.


1) Introduction paragraph(s) which includes general to specific information, concluding with an argument statement.
2) At least 4 supporting paragraphs with one counter example each (experience, knowledge, common knowledge). Also, make an obvious attempt at transitions from one paragraph to the next. The transition should come within the topic sentence of the following paragraph.
3) A conclusion paragraph

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Question 22 of 22

 
Using the power point presentation as a guide, you will write four argumentative/ persuasive essays. You will be given 4 arguments (#1-#4). Using the examples given (supporting information), you are to attack the argument (expose the weaknesses) in the form of a 5 paragraph essay.
 
By the time you finish with this section you will have written 4 mini-essays. Make sure that your essays contain the following components.

1) Introduction paragraph which includes general to specific information, concluding with an argument statement.

2) 3 supporting paragraphs with one example each (These are provided). Also, make an obvious attempt at transitions from one paragraph to the next. The transition should come within the topic sentence of the following paragraph.

3) A conclusion paragraph.
 
 Take 20 minutes per essay
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